Japanese beauty Acura TLX 2

Japanese beauty Acura TLX

Japanese beauty Acura TLX

Japanese beauty Acura TLX 3

We are talking about the beautiful Japanese – Acura TLX. Well, what else can I add? As a true mistress of roads, the car does everything on its own, from acceleration to cornering

However, this mistress-car on the roads of Russia appeared with some delay. Rumor has it that Japanese Akura is a young premium brand. But, as it turned out, one can argue with this point of view.

But speaking of Akura, it’s worth saying that she is the most-most of all her kind. Although, many already had the opportunity to be closer to her through the MDX SUV. And the car got its history from the life of everyone’s favorite Sedans, which became famous and popular in the markets of North America.

The question arises, what class can be assigned to a Japanese beauty? Speaking of dimensions, it is larger than the Lexus GS, slightly smaller than the Infiniti Q70, BMW 5 Series. Its chassis is an improved and upgraded version of the Honda Accord trolley. It has a 5 liter V6 engine. Probably a bit still similar to the Lexus ES. But there is that same “but.” In Akura, there is a SH-AWD all-wheel drive system with integrated traction vectors that are adjustable. Therefore, it is probably better not to say anything more about its uniqueness. In addition, in addition to all of the above, Akura has a 9-speed automatic ZF, which is already known and attractive to many drivers in the Russian Federation.

Speaking about the design of Acura-car, it’s worth saying that there are no comrades in taste and color. It will seem to someone classically seasoned, and to someone a little outdated. Perhaps this is some new demonstration of the future fashion that needs to be caught. Although, if you meet her on the road, she will win attention, that’s for sure. It has an automatic transmission control button machine, which were previously found only on government ZILs. Its value is 2.5 million US dollars. However, comfort in the car will give the driver an incredible pleasure. Sitting in front of Akura, you can feel the space and freedom. But the passengers at the back will have to feel a certain infringement in their movements. Most likely, they focused on the comfort of the driver.

The car is started by the button, at this moment the driver’s chair moves closer to the steering wheel, then press the “D” button located on the central tunnel. But the built-in collision avoidance system will all the way along Moscow avenues remind you of the terrible “traffic jam” on the roads at rush hour. There is also a cruise control program in the car, which allows you to automatically maintain the required distance to the car located in front. But is it convenient on the roads of Russia – the drivers themselves will say. But outside the city, respected drivers can relax, as Akura can accelerate and even slow down, as well as steer and keep the car in a lane even at bends.

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Effective car acceleration - Car driving 9

Effective car acceleration – Car driving

Effective car acceleration

The main mistake is the slipping of the drive wheels (when the car is stationary, and the drive wheels rotate). If on any surface, whether asphalt or ice, you do not allow it, then consider that you already own a piece of skill. How to learn this?

On a flat road, preferably on an unloaded car (with a manual transmission), at idle, turn 1st gear and start the first movement without pressing the accelerator pedal at all, i.e. working only with the clutch pedal. When the car starts moving (idle speed), stop it by “pressing the clutch” and repeat again. It turned out? Try the same thing, but using 2nd gear. Do not overdo it! Two or three times happened – enough!

At such a start of movement, your drive wheels will not slip – there will not be enough engine power and, in extreme cases, it will simply stall. In ordinary life, we, of course, will not start the movement like this, except in rare cases when it’s very slippery. The conclusion is simple: the lower the engine speed at the start of movement, the greater the likelihood that there will be no slipping! In order to make the car easier to start moving, the front wheels must be set strictly straight!

But how can one accelerate quickly on slippery ice? More about this below.

The beginning of the movement or “acceleration”, to put it simply. Many will even name the necessary terms — weather tires, a powerful motor — and they will be right, but only partially. What else is important to know, and most importantly – to be able to?

We dare to remind you that the main mistake is, firstly, the driving wheels of your car skidding in place. The car is not located in a straight line with respect to the direction of movement, and the front wheels are turned (do not stand strictly straight). This is the second. How to learn to feel the beginning of slipping? A simple exercise, with the beginning of movement without “gas”, we think, did not cause great difficulties.

Lesson two. Subtle sensations

The car stands with the engine running on level ground. Engage I gear and slowly release the clutch pedal. There will come a moment when your car, before you start moving, as if “straining”. Pay attention to this, try to feel it.!

After the moment of “tension”, if you release the clutch a little more, movement will begin. But, as soon as the car makes a rush to move, and the wheels turn slightly, press the clutch exactly enough so that it stops and the “tension” is eliminated. Performing this non-stop, you will swing the car on the spot. The smaller the amplitude, the better! Ideally – the tires are in place, and the rim barely noticeably turns back and forth.

Exercise can be performed anytime, anywhere, it is absolutely safe. Now you know exactly how your grip works and in what range. By the way, all of the above can be done on a car with automatic transmission.

The next stage of training and sensations. The car stands still, you increase the engine speed to any value (for example, 2.500 rpm.) And hold it for a long time. It is better to do this by looking at the instrument – the tachometer, if there is, and if not, then by ear. Your task, by turning on I gear, start moving while holding the engine speed that you set before. From the beginning to the end of the exercise, the turns are the same – they do not fall and do not rise. Doing it all the better on the site, where there is no movement of cars and pedestrians. At the first attempts, it is better to look at the tachometer, again, if there is one. You need to start with a slight increase in speed and, as you complete it, complicate the task by increasing them. It is important to pay attention to the speed of releasing the clutch pedal, namely: try to do this as soon as possible.

If everything is done absolutely correctly, then the car accelerates quickly and without slipping, and the higher the engine speed that you hold, the faster. There comes a time when the execution becomes impossible due to the occurrence of slippage. Most often, this means that for a given pavement you have crossed the line and the engine speed is too high. The conclusion is simple: the higher the coefficient of adhesion, the greater the speed for quick acceleration we can afford! Performing acceleration in this way, you begin to catch the beginning of slipping, if you make a mistake – this is the uniqueness of the exercise.

Acceleration tricks and the start of movement

1. If you need to win the “start”, then the maximum form of your readiness for this is when the engine speed is chosen correctly, the front wheels are straight, and the car swings slightly in place (see Exercise above);

2. At the beginning of the movement, the center of gravity of the vehicle shifts back, loading the rear wheels. If a car with rear-wheel drive, this increases the acceleration efficiency, and if with a front-wheel drive it lowers (front, driving wheels are loaded). Using the rocking technique in place, i.e. moving the car back and forth, you and the center of gravity move back and forth. Using its movement (depending on the type of drive of your car), you can increase the efficiency of the starting moment, and even on very slippery roads start moving without slipping.

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Energy-saving tires advantages and disadvantages 11

Energy-saving tires advantages and disadvantages

Energy-saving tires advantages and disadvantages

Energy-saving tires advantages and disadvantages 12

It is immediately worth noting that energy-saving tires are the most environmentally friendly and quite economical option in terms of gas mileage. Such rubber has certain advantages, the main of which is environmental friendliness, which consists in significantly reducing the impact of harmful substances. This is achieved by reducing such an indicator as rolling resistance.

Updated environmental standards state that the emission of harmful substances should not exceed one hundred and twenty grams per kilometer. Of course, car manufacturers should focus on this indicator and ensure its normative level. All this is achieved by certain modifications. Or you can achieve a significant reduction in emissions through the installation of energy-efficient tires. Thanks to the replacement of rubber, it is possible to reduce the release of carbon dioxide in the air up to 5 grams per kilometer.

Since our motorists are more focused not on environmental friendliness of tires, but on fuel economy, in this case the benefit is obvious. Take for example, if the mileage for a new energy-saving tire is forty-five thousand kilometers, then if you save within two hundred grams of gasoline per hundred kilometers, you can eventually save up for new rubber. If everything is led to comparable values, then buying a set of energy-saving rubber, you will get a bonus – the cost of another tire, obtained due to fuel economy.

It should be noted that the environmental friendliness of rubber and the possibility of saving fuels and lubricants in no way affect the deterioration of the adhesion of the wheels of the car with asphalt. Thus, professionals from the famous Michelin brand organized and conducted test tests of cars that are equipped with energy-saving tires. The test result was pleased – energy-saving tires showed much better technical qualities than ordinary.

But for high quality, environmental friendliness and safety, you will have to pay a little more, although it’s worth it. When choosing new tires with a high level of environmental friendliness, it is worth paying attention to special marking. Note that many well-known car manufacturers, such as Toyota, equip their new cars with energy-efficient tires immediately..

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Electronic car security systems 18

Electronic car security systems

Without keyword

Electronic car security systems 19

The principle of operation of the steering wheel position sensor is quite simple. Consider this as an example of SAS mounted on BMW cars. The sensor consists of two potentiometers located at an angle of 90 °.

The readings from these two potentiometers cover one complete turn, fig. eleven

Electronic car security systems 20

steering, all data from potentiometers are repeated after +/- 180 °. The SAS sensor understands this and accordingly calculates the steering speed. The full angle of the steering wheel position thus consists of the current potentiometer reading added to the number of full turns of the steering wheel in one direction or another. So that the exact position of the steering wheel is available at any time, there is a continuous monitoring of all movements of the steering wheel – even when the car is stationary. To achieve this, voltage is constantly applied to the angle sensor from terminal No. 30. This means that the steering wheel tracking continues even with the ignition switched off. The steering angle fixed by potentiometers remains available even after turning off the power; data on the number of steering wheel turns after a power failure is lost. In order for the steering angle sensor to understand the actual relative position of the steering wheel and the wheels of the car after the power supply is cut off, the control unit integrates software that can calculate this indicator based on the speed of the wheels of the car and the current reading of the steering angle. On some car models, it is enough to rotate the steering wheel 2-3 times to the right and left on a motionless vehicle. On others, adaptation of the SAS sensor is required. This procedure is possible both with the help of a diagnostic scanner and without it. If this procedure is not performed, the control unit cannot determine the exact relative position of the steering wheel and wheels. When the vehicle starts to move and reaches a speed of approximately 20 km / h, the corresponding DSC warning lamp will light up on the dashboard. The process of monitoring the state of the steering angle determination system starts immediately when the ignition is turned ON and if the steering speed is not known, the DSC system immediately switches to passive mode, and the corresponding DTC is written to the computer memory. On cars with a conventional single-axis drive, a situation is possible when, after the start of movement, the DSC control unit manages to calculate the correct steering angle at that moment the DSC warning lam on the dashboard will go out, and the system will begin to function normally. On all-wheel drive vehicles, the warning system works somewhat differently. DTC DTC is recorded immediately when power to the rudder position sensor (SAS) is interrupted. The system immediately switches to passive mode and when the ignition is turned on, the DSC warning lamp on the dashboard lights up, even on a stationary car.

But not only the power cut is the main cause of a malfunction in the system, additional checks of the proper state of the system are carried out periodically by the DSC control unit. The algorithm, as already mentioned above, is based on the readings of the ABS wheel speed sensors and the current values ​​of the steering wheel position sensor SAS. In the memory of the DSC system EEPROM control unit, standard values ​​are written that are compared with the current data from the sensors in real time. If the values ​​do not match, then the system naturally switches to passive mode with all the ensuing consequences. Everyone who is engaged in car repair must have met with a situation when the wheels of the car are level, and the steering wheel is shifted to one or the other side. This is a prime example of a mis-calibration of the SAS sensor. Such a situation can arise both during normal operation of the car and during repair and maintenance work with steering elements of the car, as well as during service procedures for adjusting the geometry of the wheels.

Zero Point Calibration without the diagnostic scanner on Toyota vehicles is calibrated to zero position using the following algorithm.

The car should be on a flat surface with a slope of less than 1 degree. To be motionless. On cars with an automatic transmission, the gear selector must be in the “P” position and the parking brake is activated, on cars with a manual transmission, activate the parking brake. During the procedure, do not change the position of the steering wheel or rock the car. The wheels of the vehicle must be in the forward position..

1. Turn the ignition ON, but do not start the engine.

2. Using a jumper, connect and disconnect the Ts and CG contacts more than 4 times in the DLC3 diagnostic connector for 8 seconds, Fig. 12

Electronic car security systems 21

3. Verify that the VSC indicator on the dashboard is flashing to indicate a previous calibration has been reset..

4. Turn off the ignition “OFF”.

5. Verify that the Ts and CG pins in the DLC3 diagnostic connector are disconnected..

6. Turn on the ignition ”ON”.

7. Verify that the VSC indicator on the dashboard lights up after turning the ignition on and goes out after about 15 seconds.

8. After 2 seconds after turning off the VSC indicator on the dashboard, turn off the ignition.

9. Use a jumper to connect the Ts and CG contacts to the DLC3 diagnostic connector.

10. Turn on the ignition ”ON”.

11. After turning on the ignition, make sure that the VSC indicator on the dashboard lights up for 4 seconds after turning on the ignition, and then starts to flash at intervals of 0.13 seconds.

12. Wait approximately 2 seconds while the VSC indicator on the dashboard flashes and turn off the ignition.

13. Remove the jumper from the DLC3 diagnostic connector.

14. Make a test drive by car for 5 minutes to ensure that the zero position calibration of the Steering angle sensor is successful. When you turn on the ignition and start the engine, the VSC indicator on the dashboard should light up briefly and turn off.

If during the test drive the VSC indicator on the dashboard lights up again, this means that the SAS zero calibration failed or the system has a malfunction. Try the calibration procedure again. If it also fails, check the system with a diagnostic scanner for DTCs.

Also, the category of basic sensors of electronic systems for additional safety of the car should include speed sensors WSS ABS systems installed on each wheel of the car. As the ABS system evolved, the type of sensors used changed, and if at the very beginning it was simple inductive sensors, which gradually replaced Hall sensors, which now in turn have to give way to new, more advanced MRE sensors. Our colleague Mikhail Evgenievich Kudryavtsev, the address of the article on the Internet autodata.ru/article/all/nissan_pathfinder_2007_mre_sensor/, described very well and in detail the principle of their action in his article “Nissan Pathfinder 2007 MRE sensor open circuit in the ABS harness”

I would also like to add that the waveform of the MRE sensors changes depending on the direction of the vehicle (forward / backward) and the signal is not taken from a conventional ring gear, but from a disk with magnetized fragments of different polarity.

What should significantly increase their reliability and accuracy of readings, Fig. thirteen

Electronic car security systems 22

The main sensors of electronic systems of additional safety of the car, fig. 14

Electronic car security systems 23

For service and repair, it is sometimes necessary to disable electronic safety systems. On many models, you can turn off by selecting the appropriate switch position on the dashboard located in the area, selecting the appropriate ON / OFF position. But not on all models such a switch is provided, and for example on the new Toyota camry there is a special procedure for turning the service mode on and off. In this mode, the TRC and VSC systems can be forcibly turned off either using a portable diagnostic tool or by simultaneously applying the parking brake and depressing the brake pedal. Information on changes in service mode can be found in the following maintenance recommendations..

Switch to service mode (TRC and VSC systems off).

TRC and VSC systems can be turned off in the order described below:

• Using the parking brake and brake pedal:

1. Make sure the ignition is off and the gear lever is set to ”P”.

2. Turn on the ignition (ON) and start the engine..

3. Perform steps 4 to 8 within 30 seconds after starting the engine.

4. Apply the parking brake..

5. Press the brake pedal twice and release it.

6. Turn the parking brake on and off twice by depressing the brake pedal.

7. Press and release the brake pedal twice while the parking brake is applied. Note: each of items 6 and 7 should be completed within 15 seconds..

8. Make sure that the slip warning lamp ”Slip” and the message ”CHECK VSC SYSTEM” are turned on on the multi-information display. Otherwise, repeat the procedure from step 1.

9. Electronic safety systems TRC and VSC can be returned to normal operation by turning the ignition off.

• When using a portable diagnostic tool:

1. Make sure the ignition is off and the gear lever is set to ”P”.

2. Turn on the ignition (ON) and start the engine..

3. Connect the portable diagnostic tool to the DLC3 connector and turn off the TRC and VSC systems from the corresponding service menu.

4. Electronic safety systems TRC and VSC can be returned to normal operation by turning the ignition off.

Diagnostics of electronic safety systems on the example of Toyota cars.

When an ECU detects electronic additional safety systems malfunctions in ABS systems with electronic brake force distribution (EBD), emergency brake assist, traction control (TRC) or directional stability control (VSC), the corresponding warning lamps and messages on the multi-information display indicate a faulty unit , fig. fifteen

Electronic car security systems 24

In the event of a malfunction in the ABS, EBD and emergency brake booster systems, the TRC and VSC systems are disabled. Accordingly, the main indicator lamp and the slip indicator lamp “Slip” are turned on, and the message “CHECK VSC SYSTEM” is displayed on the multi-information display.

At the same time, electronic trouble codes (DTCs) are recorded in the system memory. DTCs can be read by the number of flashes of the ABS warning lamp or by the output of codes on the multimedia information display by connecting a jumper to the Tc and CG terminals of the DLC3 connector or using a diagnostic tool.

This system provides an active diagnostic mode for sensor signals. The function is activated by connecting a jumper to the Tc and CG terminals of the DLC3 connector or using a scan tool. The ABS warning lamp and VSC warning lamp flash at intervals of 0.25 s. This monitoring function checks the deceleration sensor, yaw sensor, brake master cylinder pressure sensor and speed sensor.

An example of information output on a multi-information display, fig. 16

The system status code is displayed. The DTC is displayed.

In case of certain malfunctions, the operation of electronic additional safety systems goes into emergency mode. Here are some reasons for such a transition..

• In the event of a malfunction of the ABS system and / or the emergency brake booster, the ECU of the electronic additional safety systems blocks the inclusion of additional brake systems (ABS, emergency brake booster, TRC, VSC).

• In the event of a malfunction of the electronic brake force distribution (EBD) system, the ECU of the electronic safety systems blocks the operation of this system. Even in this case, the effective operation of the brake system is ensured, with the exception of additional brake systems (ABS with EBD, brake assist, TRC, VSC).

• In the event of a malfunction of the Traction Control System (TRC) and / or the Stability Program (VSC), the electronic control unit blocks the inclusion of these systems.

• In the event of a malfunction in the communication line between the ECU of the electronic safety systems and the steering angle sensor, the yaw and deceleration sensors or the engine ECU, the ECU of the electronic safety systems blocks the functioning of the traction control system (TRC) and the exchange rate stability (VSC) system.

• If the engine ECU registers certain DTCs (this list varies by model and year of manufacture), then it blocks the functioning of the traction control (TRC) and the electronic stability control (VSC).

Also, in certain cases, when critical DTCs are detected (from the point of view of the car manufacturer), not only the TRC and VSC electronic safety systems can be disabled, but also a forced power reduction occurs through direct control to the throttle motor directly from the engine ECU to limit the maximum engine speed. The so-called mode “LIMP MODE”.

The power limitation mode is also activated in extreme situations arising on the road and when the TRC and VSC systems are turned on. When you turn on the VSC system of directional stability, the ECU of the electronic safety systems sends a VSC enable signal to the engine ECU.

Upon receipt of this signal, the engine ECU adjusts the throttle position to change engine power, Fig. 17

Electronic car security systems 25

Well, in conclusion, very briefly about what the ABS system is with the electronic brake force distribution (EBD) system.

The ECU of the electronic safety systems calculates the speed of each wheel, the deceleration rate, and also recognizes the wheel lock based on signals from the wheel speed sensors, the vehicle’s rotation speed and the deceleration. Depending on whether the wheels slip or not, the ECU of electronic safety systems regulates the brake fluid pressure in the working cylinder of each wheel, including the check and pressure valves in one of three modes: decrease, hold and increase pressure.

The table shows a good example of an ABS system with electronic brake force distribution (EBD) in various operating modes. Fig. 18

Electronic car security systems 26

Of course, this is not complete information about the structure and functioning of the additional safety systems of the car ABS, TRC and VSC, but just a thesis overview of the main points. To learn more deeply and how to understand it is possible only through the daily practice of working with these systems in the repair and maintenance of cars.

Successful to all repairs and trouble-free maintenance of their cars.

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Electric car Toyota Prius 32

Electric car Toyota Prius

Electric car Toyota Prius

Electric car Toyota Prius 33

For many inhabitants, in the good sense of the word, the term hybrid is associated with a car, which, due to its mass character, has become a “classic of the genre.” With a hybrid Japanese electric car Toyota Prius motorists met in the last 20th century. The conveyor with the first model was launched in 1997. Of the 355,000 electric vehicles that were released, most remained in Japan; the rest of the hybrids went to the United States and delighted the people of sunny California. In other countries, only single copies.

Since then, the Toyota Prius Hybrid has undergone 4 serious “plastic surgeries” and its fifth version, assembled at Toyota’s automobile plants in Japan and China, flies like hot cakes to many countries around the world. Even on Russian roads, several hundred Priuses of various versions are already running. And, according to the reviews of numerous owners, they are satisfied with the efficiency and comfort of their cars. There is a saying: “as you call a yacht, so it will sail.” “Prius” is “going ahead.” Well called. Swims well. In the United States, the second Prius even visited the car of the year. Buyers of the fifth version now even have the opportunity to order a solar battery as an additional option. The solar battery works exclusively on the climate control system and during the movement of the car and in the parking lot and at the same time continuously maintains the optimum temperature in the cabin.

However, for this “barrel of honey” there is a small “fly in the ointment.” This is the absence in most countries of a full-fledged service traction batteries. When this main unit fails, even the Americans have to order it in Japan. About the Russian owners all the more you can not stutter. At the same time, an inexplicable paradox is observed: as part of an electric vehicle, its traction battery has one declared price, and when replacing it, it’s completely different, with one and a half and even twice as much.

Many users note another feature of the Prius – the lack of idle. Often, a newcomer who first drives a car and presses the Power button sits and waits for the engine to start working. And the engine is silent. The car does not drive because the Prius moves from a place exclusively on electric traction and you just need to press the gas pedal. True, in electric mode in the electric car mode, the Prius is able to drive no more than two kilometers and only at low speed. Approximately 30 kilometers per hour.

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