… rummaging through GOSTs, “Recommendations”, “Temporary Instructions” and so on and so forth … one cannot help taking off his hat to the resourcefulness and hard work of all those from whom we buy and pour gasoline into the tanks of our cars. Because: having such clear, definitely regulating GOSTs, being able to do this this winter … let all Sakhalin car enthusiasts know – for this you need to have Berezovsky’s lack of principle and Yeltsin’s reinforced concrete confidence “after me – even a flood!”. There are many rumors about what gas should be like, what requirements it should meet. But, as usual with the Russian people: “no one – nowhere – unspecific.” That is, almost no one knows specifically what automobile gasoline should be, what to look at gas stations and whether to look … Gasoline has few properties and you need to know them:
- gasoline must have good (high) so-called carburetric properties, that is, when mixed with air, create such a fuel-air mixture that allows you to start the engine in the widest temperature ranges
- gasoline must have good knock resistance, that is, not cause detonation ignition of the mixture
- the ignition temperature of the fuel-air mixture should be as high as possible for each particular type of gasoline
Gasolines have basic physical and chemical parameters:
- fractional composition
- knock resistance
- specific heat of combustion
- saturated steam pressure
- induction period
We, as motorists, are interested in only a few parameters, which we will talk about. Fractional Composition Starting the engine in the cold season and at high humidity (this applies especially to Sakhalin Island), engine throttle response, fuel consumption – all of these most important parameters for us are laid down precisely in this concept, as “fractional composition”. Definition fractions of gasoline is carried out by a laboratory method. 100 milliliters of the tested gasoline is taken and this amount is heated in a special installation. The resulting vapors are cooled, they condense, turn into a liquid, which is collected in a volumetric beaker. During such a distillation, it is recorded:
- the temperature of the beginning of the boil (n.k – the beginning of the boil, that is, the time of the fall of the first drop into the beaker)
- temperature and boiling time 10% (accurate to the second)
- temperature and boiling time 50%
- temperature and boiling time 90%
- temperature and end time of distillation (test)
All these data should be given in the quality certificates of gasoline and accordingly indicated as: Тн.п (beginning of distillation) Т10% (evaporation of 10%) Т50% (evaporation of 50%) Т90% (evaporation of 90%) Тк.п (end of distillation, heavy fractions) But for us Sakhalin residents who operate their cars not only at low temperatures, but also at high humidity, with regard to the issue of “winter start-up”, we need to know that: The lower the ambient temperature, the smaller the number of light fractions evaporated . This is our second parameter when tested under the acronym T10%. In principle, everything is simple, if at the gas station under the glass there is a fuel passport in which these parameters are indicated (must be indicated!). Because there is a small and ingenious set of formulas with which you can make small calculations right at the gas station and answer the question: “If I put this gasoline in the tank, will my car start tomorrow morning at minus 30 degrees?” Let’s start our calculations. Determining the ambient temperature at which the engine start is guaranteed at 100% – Divide the parameter “T10%” by 1.25 and subtract the value “59” from the total obtained, for example: Determining the ambient temperature at which the engine start is guaranteed at 50% , – 0.5 Т10% – 50.5 Such simple formulas here … The so-called “Gost” formulas, previously hidden in paper rubble, but now provided for all Sakhalin motorists. Of course, the above formulas are an empirical product … (accuracy of calculations is from 2 to 5 percent, and you shouldn’t trust them much, because you can write anything you want in the gasoline passport, but will it be true?), But for personal express -analysis all this is quite suitable and efficient. However, “with all this,” one must also take into account such “personal” engine parameters as: · serviceability of the engine control system itself · serviceability of the ignition system (spark plugs, ignition coil, high-voltage wires, switch) · does it turn well? starter ?, – if the starting speed is small, less than 400 rpm, then there is still little hope of a reliable engine start. In winter, fuel consumption usually increases. We “sin” for a lot (increased engine warm-up time after start-up, “short” ride, and so on), we try to fix something, fix it, come up with some of our “bells and whistles”, completely forgetting that it didn’t interfere with refueling to look at the T50% parameter in the gasoline passport. If you refuel gasoline, the parameters of which T50% do not go beyond 100 degrees Celsius, you can expect significant savings in fuel and money … Strangely enough, gasolines, like diesel, should be divided into WINTER AND SUMMER . Summer gasoline is recommended to be used from April 1 to October 1 … Winter gasoline is recommended to be used from October 1 to April 1 … Funny? Naturally, it’s funny, because no one ever thinks about it. Because that’s all – just recommendations. DETONATION (knock resistance) Good word. Familiar to many, is not it? But some kind of confusing … Therefore, we will bring some clarity to this issue. Detonation: self-ignition in the combustion chamber of the most remote part of the fuel-air mixture from the spark plug, the combustion of which occurs at an explosive speed (greater than the speed of sound). Outwardly, that is, “by ear and by nose”, detonation is heard to us in the form of sonorous knocks somewhere “inside the engine”. This is the “explosion” of the fuel-air mixture and the sound waves following it, causing vibration of the walls of the cylinders, pistons, connecting rods and so on. Not only an unpleasant action, but also dangerous. Because too frequent detonation of the engine causes the imbalance of the moving parts of the engine and its failure. But this is in perspective. Wrong “set” ignition (ignition timing), non-calculated temperature (high) of air in the combustion chamber, “wrong” gasoline, soot in the combustion chamber — these are the main factors causing detonation. Gasoline has such a thing as “knock resistance.” It is determined by the “octane number.” In the “wild, but sweet West,” the octane number is determined in only one way – research. We also have another method, the so-called “motor”. In the installation (engine, in principle …) under the name UIT-85, which has such features as a “variable compression ratio”, test gasoline is poured and the installation is brought to the point of detonation. Then, mixtures of isooctane and n-heptane in different proportions are poured into the same installation, achieving the same level of detonation. The proportion of isooctane in such a mixture indicates the octane number of gasoline. The letter “M” in the gasoline passport indicates that the octane number is determined by the motor method, the letter “I” is determined by the research method. And they vary significantly. For example, AI92 gasoline has an octane rating according to: Motor Method – 85 Research Method – 92 Are there any differences in this definition? There is. Japanese cars are currently heat-stressed engines, and it is best to use gasoline with an octane rating determined by the motor method, because in this case, the conditions for testing fuel and determining its octane number occur in more critical and stressful conditions. By the way, if there is a calculator, then almost every car owner can determine what kind of fuel with what octane number he needs for a “normal ride” according to a simple formula: 125.4 – (413: compression ratio) + 0.183 x cylinder diameter (mm) We draw attention to the fact that it is necessary to divide by the degree of compression, and not by compression (these concepts were already mentioned in an article by Fedor Ryazanov on the “expanses” of this site). And here we come to the most important and interesting thing – to the methods by which you can increase the octane number of gasoline … Hold our breath, open the innermost … Figures! There is nothing hidden here, everything is prosaic, banal and embarrassing: in 95 cases out of 100, the so-called “increase in octane number” is made using a dirty galvanized bucket and an additive poured into it called tetraethyl lead. Stealing and looking around. The name of the additive does not change the essence of the matter. It can be tetraethyl lead, tetramethyl lead and so on and so on … what is available, what was managed to “snatch” in the hope of a quick and speedy enrichment. Do you think it doesn’t work? Again, “figs”, because here the profit is not even according to “Comrade Marx” – not 300%, but 500%, 800% or more. Feel the smell of leather upholstery in the new LAND CRUISER. Myself, wife, children and lover. Okay, this is all true, by the way, now a little more specific? You can get high-quality gasoline in many ways. 1. The selection of raw materials for processing. 2. A change in processing technology. 3. Introducing antiknock agents into gasoline. This last one is the very “sweet” that is seen by many comrades from the windows of gas stations: profit, but almost instant! Tetraethyl Lead (chemical formula Pb (C2H5)4 ), always used on the “expanses of the homeland.” Recently, however, it has begun to be banned, especially in large cities, but Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk has never belonged to “large cities” … air shock with loud statements about environmental protection – our business is as usual as everywhere else, so put on this the final point. Tetraethyl lead is a thick and colorless liquid that dissolves very easily and almost instantly in oil products, but not in water. In its pure form, tetraethyl lead cannot be used, because lead contained in this additive has a negative and rather detrimental effect on all the “internal” of the engine: combustion chamber, piston, valve … Tetraethyl lead, if used correctly, is used together with the so-called “scavenger” lead ”, when all volatile substances formed during fuel combustion are removed together with the exhaust gases. But so “must be.” And in fact? In fact, as already mentioned on the “expanses of the site”, “simply” tetraethyl lead is added to gasoline to increase the octane number. Many tankers have never heard of any “scavenger”. Spark plugs in the engine for a long time twisted – looked? It would be nice to do this weekly. To know: “what am I driving?” How to find out? It’s simple, we look at the color of the central ceramic insulator. “In theory,” as they say, its color should be (vary) in a light brown range. A little bit here or here. If you find “something” reddish on this very insulator, here is a good example of this article about the improper and unlawful use of iron-containing additives to increase the octane number. Such spark plugs can not be repaired or restored. Yes, they can still be used, but only in the summer time of the year, and even that, one must carefully watch how far the “redness” process has gone. Because such a reddish plaque here is a “slightly” conductive plaque, if I may say so. And interruptions in spark formation can be “read” in this way: one, for example, a spark “hits” normally, from the central to the side electrode, and the second spark “hits” also to the side electrode, but to its base. Naturally, what quality “ignition” of the fuel-air mixture can be talked about here?
. how correctly “remarked” Ryazanov Fedor: “If the electronics in the car are operational – the machine should start at any temperature”.
This short article of mine is the answer to all my customers who often call, come and ask: “Why is my car starting up so bad in the morning, in the cold?” Why – why. now, after reading this article, you know? Alas like that.
What more can be said? There is only one hope that “someone” will correct this situation?
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