Off road driving
Everyone loves to communicate with nature, but always meets obstacles in their path that you cannot overcome without a certain skill. If there is no experience, you have to spend a lot of time and effort to drive a hundred, or even ten meters. It can be snow or sand drifts, ford or deep puddle, slippery rise or slope, a blurred road or with a deep track. The skill comes with time, and knowledge of the basic techniques found by drivers and prompted by life itself will help reduce it. The ability to overcome one or another obstacle is limited by a number of factors: traction available to the drive wheels; their adhesion to the ground; distance from the reference plane of the wheels to the lowest point of the car (ground clearance), the height of the location and the security of nodes that are afraid of water (distributor, ignition coil, spark plugs and exhaust pipe). * A few words should be said about the effort on the drive wheels. There are concepts such as torque and transmission ratios. These parameters are set by the designer. Each driver can change their optimal values by varying the engine speed and including one or another gearbox transmission. When do you have to use the maximum value of these parameters? When driving on soft ground, when the wheels sink deep, but do not skid. Here, in front of the rear and front wheels, rollers formed. Their wheels partially crush, partially push in front of them. Almost all engine energy is spent on this work. When it runs out, the engine speed and vehicle speed are reduced despite the increased pressure on the accelerator pedal. Jerks occur in the transmission. The car is exhausted, exhausted, unable to overcome resistance. What can be done in this situation? First of all, you should lighten the car as much as possible by disembarking passengers or removing the load. Then you need to smoothly move back and also smoothly, having dispersed, “ram” the formed obstacle.
* If you are stuck in mud or snow in a car with an automatic transmission, do not try to swing the stalled car.
First of all, we’ll understand what should be understood by the term “buildup”. Everyone who has ever pulled out a stuck car knows that if they couldn’t do it the first time, they should be pushed synchronously with their own oscillation frequency in the knurled recess. The amplitude of movements increases, And at some point the wheels roll over an obstacle.
The same result can be achieved if, simultaneously with the rocking of the car, the first and rear speeds are switched, “pushing” it with the engine. Since the period of natural vibrations of a stuck car rarely exceeds one second, it is necessary to work with the gear lever with maximum intensity. But the manual is good because it turns on almost instantly. “Automatic” is more “thoughtful”, after moving the selector knob, it needs a few tenths of a second. Some designs can reduce this gap by increasing engine speed even before the transmission is fully connected. But at the same time, gear shifting takes place more rigidly, and the load on the clutches of the box increases many times.
* Turned front wheels often interfere with getting out of a deep gauge. Sometimes it’s enough to install them directly so that the car will move. Sometimes, to leave the deep rut, it is not enough to turn the wheels. In this case, you need to dig a shallow exit in front or behind in the direction of the vehicle with a shovel.
* When approaching an impassable stretch of road, try to remember that the greater the inertia of the car, the higher the engine speed and lower the gear, the greater the resistance the car can overcome. Therefore, having previously assessed the severity of the obstacle, find such a mode of movement to slip the entire section on the move. Of course, on the way there may be such soil, sand or snow that the wheels get stuck on the hub and the car sits on the bottom. To prevent this from happening, first on the rut you should lay down everything that comes to hand: boards, branches, stones. In an extreme case, when very viscous soil is caught, and attempts to get out on their own are ineffective, it is better not to damage the car, resort to the help of a tugboat, winch or jack.
* Using a manual winch, you can quickly pull out a stuck car weighing up to 1 ton. Rural residents, hunters and fishers, whose path is usually not limited to asphalt, such a winch is simply necessary. She is able to come to the aid of a car stuck on a slippery slope, in a river or in a deep puddle. The support for the winch (if it does not have a special device) can be a tree, stake, shovel and even a mounting blade made of a chauffeur tool.
* Great help in overcoming difficult sections is provided by various devices on driving wheels: chains, bracelets, staples of different designs. An effective and probably the easiest device to overcome slipping is a metal mesh with 20×20 mm mesh, which is placed under the wheels. Two strips of such a grid measuring 0.4×1.5 m are easy to place in the trunk.
* Each driver should know that the higher the engine speed and the transmission is sharper, the sooner the drive wheels will slip. To avoid this, you need to learn how to “feel” the engine. This is perhaps the most difficult – to find and maintain an optimal regime, which in many cases will ensure success. How can this be learned? Only through training. Drive on packed snow in first gear. Try slowly and then faster to increase the crankshaft speed using the accelerator pedal. The car will accelerate first, then at some point its speed will begin to decline, and the engine will “howl” without your intervention. This will mean that one or two driving wheels slipped (slipped) and, since the resistance to their rotation sharply decreased, the engine speed increased.
Now repeat the maneuver, carefully listening to the engine. As soon as the speed of the crankshaft starts to increase arbitrarily, smoothly remove the “gas”, switch to second gear, the base accelerate the car.
During the training process, you will notice that the car is sensitive not only to changing the engine speed, but also to manipulating the clutch pedal. It is worth a bit sharper to let her go, immediately followed by a wheel slip. Overcoming a difficult area, it is better not to touch this pedal at all, so that there is no reason for the stop. If the clutch cannot be dispensed with in a specific situation, you need to turn it on and off smoothly and carefully, focusing on the engine speed.
* The crankshaft speed must be constant when driving on slippery roads. Do not forget that any change in engine operating conditions may cause an unexpected and undesired stop. It’s unpleasant when a stretch of muddy road appears on the road, and even with a deep track, for pulling out a car that has settled on a bridge or underbody is almost an art. In fact, in other cases it is enough to push it or take it in tow. Here, such actions can lead to damage to components and parts located under the bottom. Having met such a blurred stretch of road, you must first carefully examine it and, if necessary, prepare for a successful overcoming. When the track is too deep on a long stretch of the track, try to keep it between the wheels. Driving along hard and wide ridges is not difficult, but on soft and narrow ridges it is very difficult. In order not to slide off the ridges into a deep rut, it is better when the wheels of one side are on a rut and the other on the side of the road. In this position, it is much easier to keep the desired direction, since the wheels going along the rut almost do not require control.
* Caveats are undoubtedly helpful. But what about when the car still got on the ground? First of all, you need to get out of the car and look around. Depending on the reasons and specific road conditions, the necessary measures should be taken. In most cases, it is advisable to bring the car back. If it does not work out, you must try to lift it with a jack and remove the “excess” earth. Particular attention should be paid to the installation of the jack, since the place for it is often inappropriate, – dirt or sand. Under the heel, the krat house usually lay a board, a flat stone, but with the expectation that the top of the jack is 0.15-0.20 m from the car door, otherwise the jack will damage it when fully lifted.
Only in one case can the jack be replaced by a tug without the risk of damaging the car when the front wheels hit a moat or pit. In this case, the end face of the log or connected by the letter X two poles are substituted under the tow rope, tilting them towards the car. When pulling the cable, the front part will rise and the car will move forward.
* The last obstacle on the thorny path is water. There is probably no need to say that “without knowing the ford, do not get into the water.” And if you still climbed, move slowly. Troubles can begin if water floods the breaker-distributor and the ignition coil, spark plugs or even worse – it gets into the exhaust pipe. If the engine froze due to the fault of the distributor, candles or coils, they can be opened, turned off and wiped or blown with a stream of compressed air from the pump. These operations are unpleasant to perform while standing in the water, but still this is the way out. An engine stopped in water with a muffler exhaust pipe flooded is useless. It is necessary to pull the car ashore and remove water from the pipe, driving to the hill.
* Overcoming serious water obstacles, remember that high speed does not guarantee safe passage and, above all, for the engine. Water can enter the intake manifold, and not far from the cylinders. If there is a lot of it, water hammer is inevitable. Water, unlike air, is incompressible: the piston will hit the water from the entire stroke, as if into a wall, and the pressure in the cylinder will exceed the norm several times.
Bent or broken connecting rods – the result of a failure to force a water barrier.
It happens that the engine (if the speed is low) can simply stop. Try to start it with a starter. If it does not work, turn out the candles and crank the crankshaft.
Water will exit the cylinders through the holes and the engine can be started. If there is a knock in the block, it means that the connecting rods are damaged and the motor must be stopped immediately. If everything worked out – you are very lucky.
* Having passed through the water, the level of which reaches the brake drums, be sure to dry the brakes. To do this, pull the hand brake lever slightly. Pay particular attention to this operation..
* The situations considered, of course, do not give an idea of all the cases that are possible where the road is not well-maintained. As experience shows, knowledge, ingenuity and resourcefulness help to find a way out of any position..
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