Repair of the most common vehicle malfunctions - Car maintenance and care - Car maintenance - A variety of tips for motorists - Everything for a car in St. Petersburg 2

Repair of the most common vehicle malfunctions – Car maintenance and care – Car maintenance – A variety of tips for motorists – Everything for a car in St. Petersburg

Repair the most common vehicle malfunctions

Reading a lot of car forums, one can come across a strangeness – “specialists”, hiding behind obscure terms, often cannot give intelligible advice on some kind of car malfunction. In fact, the choice of spare parts, and easy repair that does not require sophisticated equipment or sophisticated knowledge, is within the power of every motorist. Knowing the surface structure of the car, and a little understanding of the symptoms of its malfunctions, you can relatively accurately determine the cause of the problem, and contact the service in a timely manner, or fix the breakdown yourself.

The main condition for any car owner is to strictly comply with all the requirements of the operating instructions. No need to reinvent the wheel and be smart. The engineers who made it up probably know better what their offspring need..

Independent maintenance comes down to replacing filters, spark plugs, timing belt, replacing brake pads.

So, it is worth changing the timing belt only after 60,000 km, the candles – 30,000 km, the fuel filter does not always change as indicated in the instructions. The fact is that in different regions of Russia the fuel quality is different, and therefore it is necessary to monitor the clogging of the filter yourself. Practice shows that it is best to replace every 10,000-12,000 km.

The air filter is also replaced depending on its clogging. In the summer, in a dusty area, filter replacement is necessary after 6000-8000, subject to daily operation of the car, but in the winter it will “last” for a rather long time.

The heart of the car is the engine.
Professionals with both experience and stands can detect malfunctions by knocking on the motor or warn of an imminent failure of the unit. In any case, if a knock is heard in the engine, you should immediately contact the service. It is better to invest a little on diagnostics than later, but a lot – buying a new engine or expensive parts for it. You can delay the trip to the master because of problems with the engine, and solve the problem yourself. To do this, you only need to refuel at a proven gas station and do not overload the engine unnecessarily. Monitor pressure and oil level and coolant temperature.

When replacing spare parts in a car service, you should try to keep track of which spare part is being changed. The law allows the workshop to replace an old one with a new spare part purchased personally, if it meets the requirements. Usually the service offers to take its spare parts, as an extra charge is made, and they can charge it there the way they want. Or, which happens often, the replacement is made for a used spare part, and the car owner pays for it, as for a new.

The second important node is the “transmission”. All its nodes are interconnected and also need timely diagnosis. In general, a full diagnosis should be carried out approximately twice a year – in the spring and autumn, respectively. If any malfunction of the undercarriage is detected, the vehicle is not allowed for further operation.

It is worth monitoring the completeness of the brake reservoir and the operation of the brakes.. If the car is operated in a city where it is often necessary to slow down at traffic lights, attention to the brake system should be increased. The pads wear out faster, and if there is any suspicion of their abrasion – a long braking distance, slow response when the pedal is fully depressed – it is worth considering. The brake fluid reservoir must always be full. Fluid care – a serious signal about the depressurization of the brake system! If the pedal completely leaves without any effort – do not go independently to the service! Call a tow truck, or ask the master to come yourself.

Car electrical equipment Russian-made, not demanding on some ultra-expensive tests and settings, in contrast to the “smart electronic filling” of foreign cars, more durable and reliable. Compactly assembled, without unnecessary “twists”, increasing the cost of caring for it. But there are no such parts that would not break. One such element in electrical equipment is a safety box..

“Strange and incomprehensible” malfunctions with the electrics lie precisely in the fuses. On the example of the VAZ-2114, we consider the symptoms of a “strange breakdown” – In the dipped beam, the right headlight does not light, and in the far light it burns. The point is not in the light bulb, but in the fuse F12! Replacing it, you can make sure – the malfunction is eliminated. You need to remember one rule – Before you do something with the wiring – you must remove both terminals from the battery.

But how to check the efficiency of the fuel gauge bulb? It often happens that she begins to disturb on the road, and to make sure she is right, you should conduct the following experiment: Burn the entire tank. What will the light show? If she started to blink, then it’s too early to rejoice. Having refueled by a third, the light should go out. If this does not happen, then the measuring mechanism in the gas tank is faulty. The failure of the bulb at full fuel consumption will also indicate it..

Returning to electrical equipment, I want to indicate another common cause of “sudden failures” – Oxidation of contacts. You can clean them with emery paper.

A strong problem that annoys motorists can be called wheel condition. Therefore, a foot or electric pump (preferably both), a jack, and a working spare tire must be included in the set of travel tools.

Another one serious trouble – frost. Driving a car in extreme cold is sometimes necessary, but not everyone succeeds. At -20, the machine must be preheated. In cars with water cooling, heating is carried out by pouring hot water into the radiator. With antifreeze, the situation is more complicated..

Car owners with a garage warm the engines with a heat gun, and if the car is on the street, it becomes almost impossible to get it in the cold. When warming up with a gun, you should be careful, as the machine is a source of flammable liquids, and even with a weak leakage to the nozzle of the gun, a fire may occur.

In the end, I want to say a few words about the appearance of the car: which owner is such a machine, so do not be lazy to bathe your steel horse, clean the interior, stop by the engine wash. A clean car not only looks beautiful, but also in the event of a breakdown – is easily repaired. In some services, they charge a percentage “for dirt”. In winter, it is advisable to wash the car in warm washes. If not, then all locks after washing should be gently blown with a hairdryer, and washing should be done with hot (but not boiling water), water.

Applying this simple knowledge on his car, and passing diagnostics in a timely manner, the car will last a long and happy years for its owner. Have a good trip!

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Common Rail Injector 6

Common Rail Injector

Without keyword

“Battery-type fuel equipment began to be used on main marine diesels since 1910 and was most widely used in the 50s.

The first industrial model of an electronically controlled battery fuel system without pressure multipliers, called Common Rail, I co-developed by Robert Bosch GmbH, Fiat, Elasis in 1997. However, such systems have been developed since the 70s, and it was in Russia (USSR) most successfully. “[1]

The device and design of nozzles

Fuel is supplied to the nozzle through the high pressure inlet fitting (4) and then to the channel (10) and the hydraulic control chamber (8) through the nozzle (7). The hydraulic control chamber is connected to the fuel return line (1) through the nozzle of the hydraulic control chamber 6, which opens with a solenoid valve.

With the nozzle closed (6) hydraulic pressure forces, attached to control plunger (9), outperform pressure forces applied to the shoulder of the needle (11) of the nozzle. As a result, the needle sits on the saddle and closes the passage of fuel under high pressure into the combustion chamber.

When a start signal is applied to the solenoid valve, the nozzle (6) opens, pressure in the hydraulic control chamber drops, and as a result hydraulic pressure on the control plunger also decreases. Because the hydraulic pressure force the control plunger has less force acting on the shoulder of the nozzle needle, the latter opens, and fuel is injected through the nozzle openings into the combustion chamber. Such indirect control of the nozzle needle using the multiplier system allows for very fast needle lift, which cannot be done by direct action of the electromagnetic valve. The so-called “control dose” of fuel needed to raise the nozzle needle is additional to the actual amount of fuel injected, so this fuel is sent back to the fuel return line through the nozzle hydraulic cameras.

In addition to the “control dose”, leaks through the nozzle guide needles also enter the fuel return line and further into the fuel tank. The safety valve (pressure limiter) of the battery and the pressure valve of the high pressure fuel pump are also connected to the manifold of the fuel return line.

Common Rail Injector 7

Fig. Nozzle. a – the nozzle is closed, b – the nozzle is open (injection); 1 – fuel return, 2 – electrical leads, 3 – solenoid valve, 4 – fuel inlet from the accumulator, 5 – ball valve, 6 – nozzle of the hydraulic control chamber, 7 – “feeding” nozzle, 8 – hydraulic control chamber, 9 – control plunger, 10 – channel to the sprayer, 11 – nozzle needle.

The nozzle can be divided into four working stages with the engine running and the creation of high pressure fuel injection pump:

– The nozzle is closed with high pressure applied;

– The nozzle opens (start of injection);

– The nozzle is fully open;

– Nozzle closes (end of injection).

These work stages are the result of the forces exerted on the nozzle parts. When the engine is stopped and there is no pressure in the accumulator, the nozzle is closed under the action of a spring.

With the nozzle closed, no power is supplied to the solenoid valve (fig. A).

With the jet chamber nozzle closed, the anchor spring presses the ball against the seat, high pressure, the nozzle supplied to the chamber and to the atomizer from the battery increases. Thus, the high pressure acting on the end face of the control plunger, together with the spring force, keeps the nozzle closed, overcoming the pressure forces in the spray chamber.

Before starting the injection process, even with the nozzle closed, a large current is supplied to the solenoid valve, which ensures a quick rise of the ball valve (Fig. B). A ball valve opens the nozzle of the hydraulic control chamber and, since the electromagnetic force now exceeds the force of the armature spring, the valve remains open, and almost simultaneously the current supplied to the coil of the electromagnetic valve decreases to the current required to hold the armature. This is possible because the air gap for the electromagnetic flux is now reduced. With the jet open, fuel can flow from the hydraulic control chamber into the upper cavity and then along the fuel return line to the tank. The pressure in the hydraulic control chamber decreases, the pressure balance is violated, and the pressure in the spray chamber, equal to the pressure in the accumulator, is higher than the pressure in the hydraulic control chamber. As a result, the pressure force acting on the end face of the control plunger decreases, the nozzle needle rises, and the fuel injection process begins.

The nozzle needle lifting speed is determined by the difference in flow rate through the nozzle and nozzle holes. The control plunger reaches the upper stop, where it remains supported by a “buffer” layer of fuel, which is formed as a result of the above-mentioned difference in flow rates through the nozzle and nozzle openings. The nozzle needle is now fully open, and fuel is injected into the combustion chamber at a pressure almost equal to the pressure in the battery. The distribution of forces in the nozzle is similar to the distribution in the opening phase.

Nozzle closes (end of injection)

As soon as the power supply to the solenoid valve stops, the armature spring moves it down and the ball valve closes. The anchor consists of two parts, therefore, although the armature plate moves downward with the shoulder, it can counteract the return spring, which reduces stress on the anchor and the ball.

Closing the nozzle leads to an increase in pressure in the hydraulic control chamber when fuel enters through the “feed” nozzle (7). This pressure, equal to the pressure in the accumulator, acts on the end face of the control plunger, and the pressure force together with the spring force overcome the pressure force acting on the shoulder of the nozzle needle, which closes.

The speed at which the nozzle needle fits onto the saddle, that is, the speed at which the nozzle closes, is determined by the flow rate through the “feed” nozzle. Fuel injection stops as soon as the nozzle needle sits on the saddle.

Fuel equipment and diesel control systems / L.V. Sins, N.A. Ivashchenko, V.A. Markov // -M.: Legion-Avtodata, 2004 .– 342 s.

Material prepared by: Mikitenko Andrey, Legion-Avtodata Publishing House

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Description of the common rail accumulator fuel system, intake, exhaust and toxicity systems of the WL-C engines of Mazda BT-50 & Ford Ranger 13

Description of the common rail accumulator fuel system, intake, exhaust and toxicity systems of the WL-C engines of Mazda BT-50 & Ford Ranger

Without keyword

Air intake system The air intake system is used to supply air to the engine cylinders. The system consists of an air intake, an air filter housing, a turbocharger, an actuator and dampers for the VSC (Variable Swirl Control) inlet airflow rate system, a throttle valve, an intake manifold, tubes and hoses. To facilitate starting a cold engine, glow plugs are installed in the intake ports.

Intake Air Flow (VSC)

The system consists of an electro-pneumatic valve, an actuator and four shutters installed in the intake manifold and blocking one of the two inlet ports of each engine cylinder. The system serves to reduce the toxicity of exhaust gases at a low engine speed. At a low speed, according to the signal from the engine control unit, the electro-pneumatic valve opens the vacuum channel, as a result of which vacuum is applied to the VSC system drive.

Under the influence of rarefaction, the drive closes one of the inlet ports of each cylinder with the help of dampers, as a result of which air is supplied to the open inlet port with greater intensity and turbulence occurs in the cylinder, which contributes to better fuel evaporation, distribution of the air-fuel mixture over the volume of the combustion chamber, as well as contributes to smoke reduction.

Turbocharger with variable guide vane geometry
A turbocharger with a system for changing the geometry (changing the position of the blades located in the nozzle apparatus) VGT (Variable Geometry Turbocharger) is installed on the new generation WL engine. The main advantages of a fixed geometry turbocharger are as follows.

When operating at low engine crankshaft speeds for a conventional turbocharger with an exhaust gas bypass valve (previously installed on WL-T engines), there is a phenomenon called “turbojam” caused by a decrease in the flow (quantity) and pressure (and with it the speed) of the exhaust gases. In other words, the exhaust gas flow is insufficient to bring the turbine directly connected to the compressor to the operating speed, at which the turbocharger is effective.
Consequently, the boost pressure drops, and with it the filling of the cylinders and the engine torque decrease. The use of a turbocompressor with variable geometry allows you to minimize the phenomenon of “turboyama” by changing the flow area in the nozzle apparatus of the turbine. With a decrease in the cross-section in the nozzle apparatus of the turbine, the pressure of the exhaust gases in front of it increases, which is then converted after passing through the nozzle apparatus to the flow rate running on the turbine wheel.

The turbine wheel speed increases, the compressor wheel speed increases, and therefore the boost pressure.

The turbocharger uses the energy of the exhaust gases to further compress the air at the inlet and supply it to the cylinders with high pressure and density, resulting in an increase in power, lower fuel consumption and improved engine performance. The change in boost pressure is carried out by changing the position of the guide vanes mounted on the turbine housing. The position of the guide vanes is controlled by the engine control unit using a boost pressure control solenoid valve. According to the signal of the engine control unit, the electromagnetic valve opens, connecting the vacuum channel between the vacuum pump and the pneumatic drive of the guide vanes of the turbocharger, as a result of which the actuator stem connected to the lever of the control mechanism of the position of the vanes starts to be retracted into the drive, thereby adjusting the opening angle of the guide vanes and pressure boost In the free state, the turbocharger blades are maximally open and direct a greater amount of exhaust gas to the turbine wheel, as a result of which the turbine wheel rotates faster under the influence of the energy of a small stream of exhaust gases. Through the shaft, the rotation is transmitted to the compressor wheel, which pumps more air into
intake path, this contributes to an increase in boost pressure and cylinder capacity at low crankshaft speeds.

With an increase in the crankshaft speed and an increase in the flow of exhaust gases, the engine control unit begins to adjust the opening angle of the guide vanes by applying a vacuum to their drive through an electromagnetic valve. Under the action of the actuator rod, the blades begin to close until they are completely closed. The flow of exhaust gases directed to the turbine wheel decreases and the boost pressure decreases. In this mode, the turbine wheel rotates at a lower speed with a greater flow of exhaust gases. This is necessary to prevent damage to the turbocharger as a result of overload (exceeding the maximum speed) and engine damage. After passing the compressor wheel and compression, the air heats up and its density decreases. To cool the charge air and increase its density, a cooler made of aluminum alloy is installed after the turbocharger. This is necessary to improve cylinder filling.

Exhaust system and emission control The exhaust system is used to clean the cylinders of the combustion products of the air-fuel mixture. A number of elements and systems are installed in the exhaust system to reduce the content of toxic components in the exhaust gas. The toxicity reduction system of this engine includes:
– Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Throttle – Reduced
NOx, as well as the reduction of soot in the exhaust gas (black smoke).

– Oxidizing agent – reduction of NOx, CH, CO.

Description of the common rail accumulator fuel system, intake, exhaust and toxicity systems of the WL-C engines of Mazda BT-50 & Ford Ranger 14

The engine has a forced crankcase ventilation system. The system is used to remove exhaust gases that burst from the combustion chamber into the crankcase. For this, a hose connecting to the intake manifold is connected to the cylinder head cover. Crankcase gases enter the intake manifold through the hose and then into the combustion chamber.

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system is used to reduce exhaust gas toxicity by burning nitrogen oxides.
NOx in the combustion chamber.
The system consists of an exhaust gas recirculation valve with a position sensor, two solenoid valves, a cooler and a pipe system.

With the help of a cooler, the temperature of the exhaust gases is reduced, which is necessary to prevent heating of the air when mixing it with the exhaust gases received at the inlet and, accordingly, to improve the filling of the cylinders and reduce the smoke of the exhaust gases .

The exhaust gas is cooled in the EGR cooler by the coolant supplied to the cooler from the engine cooling system.

The exhaust gas recirculation system is controlled by the engine control unit using solenoid valves..

The solenoid valve No. 1 (vacuum valve) and the electromagnetic control valve No. 2 (ventilation valve) are installed in the system. Using both electromagnetic valves, the engine control unit controls the opening of the exhaust gas recirculation valve. By a signal from the control unit, the solenoid valves open and close, supplying either pressure from the vacuum pump (through the electromagnetic vacuum valve) or atmospheric pressure (through the ventilation valve associated with the atmosphere) to the valve diaphragm.

By opening the valve of the exhaust gas recirculation system, the amount of exhaust gas transferred to the intake manifold and then to the combustion chamber is regulated. NOx afterburning occurs in the combustion chamber.

The calculation of the required opening of the exhaust gas recirculation system valve is performed by the engine control unit based on the crankshaft speed, the fuel cycle and the readings of the mass air flow sensor.

To improve the operation of the exhaust gas recirculation system, a throttle valve with a pneumatic actuator is installed in the inlet tract, controlled by the engine control unit using two electromagnetic valves.

When the exhaust gas recirculation system is activated, the throttle valve closes, as a result of which an additional vacuum is created in the intake manifold, which helps to improve the flow of exhaust gases from the EGR system to the combustion chamber. When the engine is idling, the throttle is also covered, this helps to reduce the noise of intake air. Throttle control achieves smooth engine shutdown
when it stops, by closing the damper and stopping the air supply to the engine.

Common Rail Fuel System

Bosch’s Common Rail Battery Injection System is installed on the new generation WL-C engine. The main functions of the system are the optimal and proper control of the diesel fuel injection process at the right time and in the required quantity, as well as at the required injection pressure, which is ensured by the use of an electronic control system. Such an organization of the injection process control provides a smooth and economical operation of the diesel engine. In this common rail battery fuel system, fuel pressure can reach 160 MPa. This system allows to reduce the content of soot particulate matter in exhaust gases and nitrogen oxides NOx.

Common Rail battery fuel system includes: low pressure stage, high pressure stage and electronic engine management system.

The main elements of this system are electro-hydraulic nozzles, high pressure fuel pump from Bosch (CP3) (with fuel temperature sensor and fuel pressure control valve), fuel accumulator (with fuel pressure sensor and pressure reducing valve), sensors and valves of the engine management system and electronic engine control unit.

The low pressure stage consists of a fuel tank, a fuel filter and low pressure line piping. The high pressure stage in the Common Rail accumulator fuel system includes a high pressure fuel pump, a fuel accumulator, nozzles, high pressure lines and fuel return lines.

An additional fuel filter is installed in the nozzle (2) of the high-pressure fuel pump for connecting the fuel supply hose from the fuel tank to better filter the fuel before it is fed to the high pressure line.

The high pressure fuel pump is driven through the gear system from the crankshaft and delivers the fuel under the necessary pressure to the fuel accumulator.

The high-pressure fuel pump includes a fuel priming pump (pumping fuel from the fuel tank into the plunger chamber), a fuel temperature sensor, a fuel pressure regulating valve, a cam shaft, and three plungers (located at an angle of 120 ° relative to each other), which pump the fuel under high pressure into the fuel accumulator.

The amount of fuel supplied to the plunger high-pressure chamber is regulated by the control valve of the fuel priming pump. Through this valve
at an increased rotational speed of the crankshaft, part of the fuel returns to the fuel supply line. The fuel pressure control valve controls the amount of fuel supplied to the accumulator, thereby maintaining a constant pressure in the fuel accumulator. The valve is controlled by the engine control unit.-
a gatel, at the signal of which the valve opens and excess fuel is supplied to the return line.

The fuel supplied from the fuel priming pump passes into the inlet channel inside the pump. A safety valve is located behind the inlet. If the pressure created by the fuel priming pump exceeds the opening pressure of the safety valve, then the fuel passes through the valve throttle into the lubrication and cooling circuit of the injection pump. The eccentric drive shaft moves the plunger in accordance with the eccentric lift. The fuel passes through the inlet valve (1) of the injection pump into the high-pressure chamber (5) of the pump element and, when the plunger (8) moves down, implements the intake stroke (see. Figure “Cross section of the injection pump”). The shaft (6) in the pump housing is installed in the central bearing. The eccentric (7) on the high-pressure fuel pump shaft provides reciprocating movement of the plungers. After reaching the bottom dead center of the BDC of the plunger, the inlet valve closes and the fuel can no longer exit the upper chamber of the pump element (plunger). Then, when the plunger moves upward, the fuel is compressed, the pressure rises and the outlet (discharge valve) (2) opens as soon as the pressure exceeds its level in the fuel accumulator. The compressed fuel then enters the high pressure circuit. The fuel injection pump plunger continues to supply fuel until it reaches the TDC position (discharge stroke). After that, the pressure drops, the exhaust valve closes and the plunger moves down. When the pressure in the chamber of the pump element exceeds the pumping pressure, the inlet valve opens again and the process repeats. The fuel temperature sensor includes a measuring resistor and is powered by a voltage of 5 V. The resistance of the resistor varies depending on the fuel temperature, which in turn affects the output voltage (signal) sent by the sensor to the control unit. The control unit receives a signal from the sensor and determines the temperature of the fuel according to the algorithm embedded in its memory. Data received from the fuel temperature sensor is used to calculate the cyclic fuel supply. Fuel from high-pressure fuel pump under high pressure enters the fuel accumulator, from where it is fed to the nozzles. The optimum pressure is maintained in the fuel accumulator (25 – 160 MPa). If the pressure is exceeded 195 MPa, part of the fuel is drained through a pressure reducing valve (mounted on the fuel accumulator) to the fuel return line.

A pressure sensor is installed on the fuel accumulator.

Nozzles with an electromagnetic control valve are installed in the system. The nozzles are controlled by the engine control unit. Each nozzle consists of a spring-loaded piston (2), a needle (1), a solenoid valve (6) and a hydraulic chamber (3) (see the figure “Operation of the nozzle”). From the fuel accumulator, fuel is supplied to the nozzle, which enters the hydro chamber through the hole (8) and to the nozzle needle. In a pressure chamber, the fuel is under pressure equal to the pressure in the fuel accumulator. When the nozzle is closed, the fuel presses on the spring-loaded piston, which, in turn, acts on the nozzle needle, preventing it from opening. When the electronic engine control unit issues a control start signal to the corresponding solenoid valve of the nozzle, the armature (5) with a ball valve (4) rises. The ball valve opens the channel (7) connecting the hydraulic chamber to the fuel return line, as a result of which part of the fuel drains and the pressure in the nozzle’s hydraulic chamber weakens.

At the same time, the pressure of the fuel supplied to the nozzle needle overcomes the force of the piston spring and the needle opens, as a result of which the nozzle injects fuel into the cylinder.

A non-return valve is installed in the fuel return line from the nozzles. This valve prevents the fuel flowing back into the return line from the nozzles to the nozzles. The engine control unit controls the amount of fuel injected and the moment of injection. This fuel system can provide up to three sequential injections (multi-stage injection).

Each nozzle is connected to the fuel return line..

Description of the common rail accumulator fuel system, intake, exhaust and toxicity systems of the WL-C engines of Mazda BT-50 & Ford Ranger 15

The fuel injection control is carried out by the engine control unit, based on the signals of a number of sensors of the engine management system, as well as depending on the engine operating mode.

The control unit controls the amount of fuel injected, the moment of injection and the number of injections per cycle in each cylinder separately.

The amount of fuel injected by the nozzle is determined by the opening time of the nozzle needle, which in turn depends on the time during which the engine control unit sends a control signal to the nozzle solenoid valve. The opening time of the nozzle needle is controlled by the engine control unit, depending on pressing the accelerator pedal and the crankshaft speed. An adjustment is made to the estimated amount of injected fuel depending on the intake air temperature, air mass flow rate, coolant temperature and atmospheric pressure. The control unit also makes adjustments to the amount of fuel injected for each injector, depending on the identification code of the injector, which should be programmed into the memory of the engine control unit for each injector separately. In this code, mechanical characteristics are encrypted, individual for each individual nozzle.

The engine control unit constantly adjusts the amount of fuel injected into each cylinder, depending on changes in the crankshaft speed (especially at idle), to reduce the speed fluctuations and
vibration reduction.

The injection moment is calculated by the control unit based on the signals of various sensors, engine operation, crankshaft speed and the amount of fuel injected according to the algorithm recorded in the control unit memory. At the estimated time of fuel injection, an adjustment is made depending on the air temperature at the inlet, the temperature of the coolant and atmospheric pressure. The injection pressure directly depends on the pressure in the fuel accumulator and is controlled by the engine control unit based on the signal from the pressure sensor in the fuel accumulator. The fuel pressure is regulated by the control unit depending on the speed of the crankshaft and the cyclic fuel supply using the fuel pressure control valve installed in the high-pressure fuel pump. Creating the optimal fuel injection pressure for each engine operating mode helps to reduce the toxicity of exhaust gases. The number of injections produced by the nozzle into the cylinder is controlled by the engine control unit depending on the vehicle’s driving conditions and serves to reduce vibration and exhaust gas toxicity. This rechargeable fuel system allows up to three injections per cylinder per cycle. Several optimal fuel injection algorithms are programmed in the memory of the control unit for various conditions. So, at a low crankshaft speed and low load, three injections per cycle are performed to reduce the likelihood of detonation. With a high crankshaft speed and a high load, only one injection per cycle is performed to improve power performance and reduce fuel consumption.

Additional control functions are used to improve performance to reduce emissions of harmful substances in the exhaust gas and fuel consumption or are used to improve safety, comfort and ease of control.

The article “Description of the mechanical part of the engine WL-C cars Mazda BT-50 / Ford Ranger”
You can read here

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Common Rail Diesel 21

Common Rail Diesel

Common Rail Diesel

Common Rail Diesel

This is the most modern stage in the evolution of gasoline and diesel engines with direct fuel injection. It differs from traditional diesel engines with a low fuel supply pressure in the presence of a ramp, where diesel fuel is supplied under high pressure (more than 1000 bar), which is further distributed between electric nozzles with solenoid valves. The third generation of Common Rail systems is characterized by the use of piezoelectric injectors to increase injection accuracy, quantitatively increase the injection phases, as well as increase the pressure of the fuel supply to the ramp (up to 1800 bar). A variation for gasoline engines is called Direct Injection (FSI, GDI, etc.)

Common Rail History

The prototype of the Common Rail system was developed in the late 60s by Robert Huber in Switzerland. Further, his technology was developed by Marco Ganser of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. In the mid-1990s, Dr. Shohei Ito and Masahiko Miyaki from DENSO Corporation, Japan, developed the Common Rail system for commercial vehicles and implemented it in the ECD-U2 system, which was used on HINO Rising Ranger trucks, and then sold the technology to others in 1995 to manufacturers. Therefore, DENSO is considered a pioneer in adapting the Common Rail system to the needs of the automotive industry. Modern Common Rail systems operate on the same principle. They are controlled by an Electronic Control Unit, which opens each injector electronically, not mechanically. This technology has been developed in detail by the combined efforts of Magneti Marelli, Centro Ricerche Fiat and Elasis. After FIAT developed the design and concept of the system, it was sold to the German company Robert Bosch GmbH for the subsequent completion of the development of the mass product. In general, this was a big miscalculation of FIAT, as the new technology has become very profitable. But the Italian concern at that time was in a deplorable financial condition and did not have the resources to complete the work. Nevertheless, Italians were the first to use the Common Rail system in 1997 on the Alfa Romeo 156 1.9 JTD and only then it appeared on the Mercedes-Benz C 220 CDI.

Engines Common rail used in shipbuilding and for locomotives. Cooper-Bessemer GN-8 system representative of the modified Common Rail system, where hydraulic control is used.

The principle of direct injection

English word COMMON RAIL denotes an equally high pressure in the accumulator tube (ramp), which is distributed across all cylinders. A submersible electric or vacuum pump delivers diesel fuel from the tank through the fuel heater and filter to the high pressure pump. It is driven by the engine and directs the fuel under high pressure into the ramp. For the normal operation of some types of systems, it is not necessary to constantly maintain the highest pressure. The ramp tubes are the same length and end with injectors. A pressure regulator is also located on the ramp, which sends the excess fuel back to the tank through the cooler. Using the pressure sensor in the ramp, the Engine Control Unit can receive information about the pressure in the ramp and monitor it.

Sensors:

The main sensors used in the system are the ramp pressure sensor, air flow sensor, camshaft and crankshaft sensors, temperature sensors of the engine and incoming air, accelerator pedal position sensor, heating system.

Activators:

The solenoids in the Common rail system should respond within half a second: these are the injectors, the pressure regulator valve in the ramp, the turbocharger valve and the exhaust gas recirculation valve.

Injector:

Injectors are turned on at the command of the controller – the EDC block by means of a magnetic solenoid. The hydraulic pressure force allows you to open and close the injector, however, activation occurs from the control unit. Some injectors have piezocrystals. Under the influence of a magnetic field, they increase in size. In a Piezo Inline type injector, the crystal is close to the needle and therefore does not use mechanical parts to turn on the needle. In early systems, double injection was used – pilot and primary to prevent detonation. In modern systems, up to six injection phases are used. Each injector is manufactured and tested in the laboratory, where a specific code is assigned to it according to the measured data of its operation. After replacing the injectors, the code must be registered in the memory of the control unit using a scanner.

Reasons for crowding out traditional diesel engines:

Better environmental emission data, less noise, cheaper component production.

Common rail today

Currently, each manufacturer has its own abbreviation, which stands for COMMON RAIL system:
– BMW: D-engines (also used by Land Rover Freelander as TD4)
– Cummins and Scania: XPI (Joint Development)
– Cummins: CCR (Cummins Pump with Bosch Injectors)
– Daimler: CDI (for Chrysler and Jeep – CRD)
– Fiat: Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Lancia – JTD (also called MultiJet, JTDm, Ecotec CDTi, TiD, TTiD, DDiS, Quadra-Jet)
– Ford Motor: TDCi Duratorq and Powerstroke
– General Motors: Opel / Vauxhall – CDTi (manufactured by Fiat and GM Daewoo) and DTi for Isuzu
– General Motors: Daewoo / Chevrolet – VCDi (licensed from VM Motori also has the Ecotec CDTi brand)
– Honda: i-CTDi
– Hyundai and Kia: CRDi
– Mahindra: CRDe
– Maruti Suzuki: DDiS (manufactured under license from Fiat)
– Mazda: CiTD
– Mitsubishi: DI-D (recently developed a new generation of 4N1 with pressure
– in the injection system up to 2000 bar)
– Nissan: dCi
– PSA Peugeot Citroen: HDI or HDi (Volvo S40 / V50 uses engines from PSA 1.6D & 2.0D, also uses the JTD brand)
– Renault: dCi

– SsangYong: XDi (engines are assembled under license from Daimler AG)
– Subaru Legacy: TD (since January 2008)
– Tata: DICOR
– Toyota: D-4D
– Volkswagen Group: Engine 4.2 V8 TDI and the latest 2.7 and 3.0 TDI (V6) replaced the old electronic diesel engines. The 2.0 TDI engine is used on the Volkswagen Tiguan and Audi A4. New 2.0 TDI will also be available soon for Passat and in 2009 for Jetta.
– Volvo: 2.4D and D5
– Skoda: TDI

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Without keyword

2.1. Fuel system
Toyota first used the Common Rail scheme on a 1CD-FTV engine. Unlike a conventional diesel system with a distribution type injection pump, here the fuel is pumped into the common fuel rail by injection pump and injected into the cylinders through electronically controlled nozzles, reminiscent of the nozzles of a gasoline engine. One of the main differences is the significantly increased fuel pressure (instead of

200 atmospheres in a conventional engine – 1350 here).

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 28
1 – electronic engine control unit, 2 – injector amplifier, 3 – fuel pressure sensor, 4 – fuel rail,
5 – pressure limiter, 6 – check valve, 7 – nozzle, 8 – fuel pump, 9 – fuel tank, 10 – sensors.

2.2. Fuel pump
ТНВД in the scheme Common Rail has nothing in common with traditional Bosch VE.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 29
1 – fuel temperature sensor, 2 – SCV (electronic bypass valve), 3 – pressure regulator,
4 – plunger B, 5 – drive disk, 6 – plunger A,
7 – pusher, 8 – booster pump.

The booster pump, control valves and the two-chamber high-pressure pump itself, the guide disc of which is an ellipse, are placed in the housing.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 30
2 – SCV (electronic bypass valve), 3 – pressure regulator, 4 – plunger B, 5 – actuator disk, 6 – plunger A, 7 – pusher, 8 – booster pump, 9 – pressure valve, 10 – check valve.

During suction, the plungers, following the profile of the guide disc, diverge, SCV opens and fuel enters the pressure chamber.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 31
1 – pressure chamber, 2 – plunger,
3 – a directing disk, 4 – fuel, 5 – SCV,
6 – pusher, 7 – plunger.

After the disc is rotated 90 degrees, the SCV shuts off the input channel and begins the discharge stroke.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 32

The amount of fuel supplied to the plunger is regulated by SCV, so that the control unit manages to maintain the required pressure in the fuel rail.

2.3. Fuel rail
A fuel pressure sensor and a mechanical pressure limiter are installed in the fuel rail. It should be noted that the pressure sensor is structurally made “disposable” and should not be screwed in again, and the pressure limiter is adjusted once at the factory.

2.4. Nozzles

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 33

The design of the 1CD-FTV nozzle is not as sophisticated as on a fresh Isuzu diesel engine (4JX1), but nonetheless is very different from ordinary diesel and ordinary gasoline. Of course, with such a monstrous pressure in the ramp, a simple solenoid valve would be weak, so the nozzle control is “electro-hydraulic”.

In the closed state, the valve is held by a spring, while the fuel in the control chamber holds the piston in the lower position, which, in turn, fixes the needle through the spring (the fuel pressure acting on the needle from below is not enough to open it).

When current is applied to the winding, the valve retracts and opens a channel through which fuel passes to the bottom of the piston. As a result, the pressure in the control chamber decreases and the pressure increases under the piston, as a result of which it rises. At the same time, the nozzle lock needle opens and fuel is injected..

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 34
1 – electromagnetic valve, 2 – winding, 3 – control chamber, 4 – needle, 5 – piston, 6 – fuel.

As you can see, the nozzle is a complex mechanism built on a delicate balance of spring forces and fuel pressure and its throttling in thin channels. The quality of our diesel fuel is known, so you can not count on the long maintenance of this balance.

2.5. Control system

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 35

The scheme of the engine control system. 1 – accelerator pedal position sensor, 2 – from the ignition switch, 3 – starter signal, 4 – air conditioning signal, 5 – from the speed sensor,
6 – from a generator, 7 – from a DLC3 connector, 8 – an electronic engine control unit, 9 – a fuel tank, 10 – a fuel temperature sensor, 11 – a fuel filter, 12 – a high pressure fuel pump,
13 – SCV valve, 14 – fuel pressure sensor, 15 – fuel rail, 16 – intercooler (intercooler), 17 – nozzle control unit relay, 18 – nozzle control unit (nozzle amplifier), 19 – air flow meter, 20 – atmospheric sensor temperature, 21 – EGR valve, 22 – nozzle, 23 – EGR cooler, 24 – turbocharger control pneumatic actuator, 25 – camshaft position sensor, 26 – vacuum control valve (turbocharger pneumatic actuator), 27 – vacuum pump,
28 – coolant temperature sensor, 29 – crankshaft position sensor, 30 – throttle,
31 – intake air temperature sensor, 32 – boost pressure sensor, 33 – boost valve electro-pneumatic valve, 34 – glow plug, 35 – glow plug relay.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 36

The location of the components. 1 – fuel pressure sensor, 2 – electro-pneumatic valve (boost pressure sensor), 3 – glow plug, 4 – nozzle amplifier, 5 – camshaft position sensor, 6 – electronic engine control unit, 7 – nozzle, 8 – air flow meter, 9 – boost pressure sensor, 10 – DLC3 connector, 11 – accelerator pedal position sensor, 12 – EGR valve, 13 – intake air temperature sensor, 14 – throttle valve, 15 – coolant temperature sensor, 16 – vacuum control valve, 17 – sensor crankshaft position.

The control system has become almost completely electronic. The accelerator pedal is no longer mechanically connected to the injection pump (its position is controlled by a sensor), crankshaft and camshaft position sensors, respectively, appeared on the crankshaft and camshaft pulleys (the first is also a TDC sensor).

Fuel injection into the cylinders is carried out in two stages – first a small charge, then the main one, which ensures a more uniform increase in pressure in the cylinder, reduces vibration and noise.

The exhaust gas recirculation system and the throttle are not controlled by pneumatic drives, but by electric motors.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 37

1 – throttle, 2 – throttle actuator, 3 – EGR valve, 4 – EGR cooler, 5 – exhaust manifold, 6 – intake manifold, 7 – electronic engine control unit.

The use of a “variable geometry” turbocharger made it possible to control the boost pressure depending on the engine operating conditions (speed, injected fuel volume, atmospheric pressure, coolant temperature).

The boost pressure sensor is also capable of measuring barometric pressure – an electro-pneumatic valve is used for this, switching the air intake to the atmosphere at those moments when fuel injection does not occur (at idle or when slowing down).

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 38

1 – electronic engine control unit, 2 – pneumatic drive of the turbocharger, 3 – boost pressure sensor, 4 – electro-pneumatic valve, 5 – vacuum pump, 6 – vacuum control valve.

There are also new diagnostic codes not previously seen on Toyota diesels:
34 (2) – Turbocharging system
34 (3) – Drive turbocharger blades (jamming in the closed state)
34 (4) – Drive turbocharger blades (jamming in the open state)
51 – Brake light switch circuit
71 – EGR control circuit
89 – Body control unit

2.6. Generator
In 2000-2002, Toyota began the transition to a new type of generator.
The new stator is made according to the “segmented conductor” scheme, where instead of a single continuous winding, segments joined together are inserted into the stator body. As a result, the resistance decreased and the stator size decreased.

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