Diesel engine repair 2

Diesel engine repair

Diesel engine repair

Diesel engine repair

Car engine repair is an extremely difficult and responsible work that can only be entrusted to a master with the highest qualifications and extensive experience. And we declare with pride and full responsibility – on our service there are such masters!

Regardless of which engine is installed on your car – a utility diesel engine or an ultra-modern sports diesel engine AUDI, a regular 16-valve gasoline engine or a Porsche boxer engine – its repair will be completed as soon as possible and with the highest quality.

If you don’t have the opportunity to deliver the car to us, or if you want to try to repair your diesel engine yourself, then first we recommend reading the article by Rex Baker:

Restoration of the cylinder head of a diesel engine.

Probably, many of you already know that the diesel engine will very soon open new horizons in the car market of the United States.

Perhaps I will start with the basics, which are important to know if you have anything to do with the field of engine restoration.

Basic information

The diesel engine is a compression ignition internal combustion engine. In 1893, this method was patented by Rudolph Diesel..

Over the years, a variety of methods have been used to start and run the engine, such as prechambers, air chambers, glow plugs, as well as a method in which the engine was started with gasoline and then switched to diesel fuel.

If you have ever tried to start the engine in cold weather, you know that this required an engine heater or auxiliary fluid to start. Those engines were mostly not equipped with computers, and fuel pressures ranged from 3,000 to 6,000 psi (psi). For today’s engines with computer systems for controlling fuel consumption and fuel pressure from 12,000 to 20,000 psi, cold starting is no longer a problem, and the need for those traditional aids has disappeared.

The compression ignition fuel principle used in a diesel engine is the process by which fuel is injected into the cylinder after the air in the cylinder is compressed, causing self-ignition of the fuel.

The compression ratio in a diesel engine is higher than in a gas engine. Most diesel engines have a compression ratio of 14: 1 to 25: 1.

Until the 1970s, diesel engines were mostly naturally aspirated. Then, to achieve greater power and efficiency, a turbocharger was installed on the engine.

Most modern diesel engines have a direct injection system, which contributes to an increase in fuel efficiency by 25% compared to gasoline engines, and also reduces emissions of pollutants. In Europe, the share of diesel cars is about 60% of all vehicles, in the United States, where diesel is not so popular, about 30%. However, among trucks this indicator is 94%!

Today, diesel engines use a high-pressure fuel system (HPCR – High-Pressure Common Rail) and an electronic fuel injection control system (EUI – Electronic Unit Injection). These diesel engines have turbocharging and intercooler or variable geometry turbochargers, charge air cooling radiators with oncoming air flow and exhaust gas recirculation systems.

The cylinder head is usually made of cast iron, the most common material used for this purpose..

Not so long ago there were times when it was enough to take it to a small workshop and clean the valves to repair the cylinder head. If you needed something more complicated, for example, replacing valve seats, grinding surfaces or cleaning nozzles, you could contact the nearest machine shop. Some of these engines did not even have specifications for the maximum and minimum valve installation depths! The diesel engines that we used then were predominantly of domestic production, such as Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit, John Deere and International.

Much water has flown under the bridge since that time!

Due to the influx of manufacturers from around the world – Komatsu, Volvo, Yanmar, Sisu, Kubota, Shilbura and others – auto mechanics are required to have all the data and technical specifications that can be found. In addition, it always makes sense to contact the machine shop or the manufacturer for any additional information that may come in handy..

Sometimes nozzle nozzles are installed in the cylinder head of a factory-made cylinder. A special glue is used for them, and their surface cannot be polished, since they protrude above the surface of the head gasket. These nozzle nozzles and glue are not commercially available; they can only be purchased with the new cylinder head..

Restoration of the cylinder head of a diesel engine.

To begin with, as you know, the first thing to do after disassembling the engine is to clean the cylinder head; For this, the workshop must be equipped with a lift. For example, a Cat C-15 engine weighs over 400 pounds.!

If you are not going to change the camshaft bearings in an engine with an overhead camshaft, you should not use your washing cabin or hot-cleaning bath for this work. In addition, today in many diesel engines there are internal and reverse fuel supply channels – a special approach is needed to clean them; you may need to remove and replace the o-ring plugs.

For a successful inspection or cracks, the cylinder must be clean and dry. When inspecting a specific model, the mechanic must know its weaknesses. When processing the cylinder head, it is better to use darker powder, against which cracks are better visible. The dry method still seems to be the best and most effective for fast and accurate processing. Do not rush at this stage, concentrate on what you are doing – this will help to avoid unpleasant surprises.

With the help of a small mirror, and even better of an endoscope, you can examine the holes and the area of ​​the nozzle sleeve. If you really find cracks in the cylinder, this does not necessarily mean that the block head will have to be thrown away. There are welding workshops that in some cases can brew and restore your cast-iron cylinder head on a professional level, and it will cost you much less than buying a new head.

These welding shops take over the welding of cylinder heads, blocks, transmission crankcases and final drive crankcases – that is, almost everything that is made of cast iron. Remember that if there is a crack in the cylinder head, then it will probably be quite difficult for you to find a good replacement, as some models are prone to crack formation.

But there is a comforting moment: those welding workshops that are still operating today have already very extensive experience in the field of car repair, and the result of their work can be relied on.

Our company Midwest Cylinder Head (Nevada, Iowa) uses a unique method of welding cracks in the cylinder head. For such work, an acetylene torch, cast iron rods and flux for cast iron welding are needed. After cleaning and flaw detection to detect surface cracks, the cylinder head is placed in a furnace and heated to 1300 ° F.

Then, the areas with cracks are cut out with the tip of an acetylene burner, into which oxygen is supplied to form a heating flame. The crack looks like a white line in the center of the influx of molten metal. The welder continues to remove the metal until the white line disappears, or until he reaches the water jacket. After that, you can start the welding process..

The welding process should take place in the lower position, since the basic material must be melted before using the cast iron filler rod. The welder must be careful not to make a mortise seam before the base material melts at the right temperature. After welding is complete, bring the cylinder head temperature to 2000 ° F, then cool the head to room temperature and turn off the oven.

Most diesel engine cylinder heads have nozzle bushings that lead to the block head. One of the purposes of the sleeve is to isolate the compression from the cylinder between the sleeve and the nozzle.

The sealing area inside the sleeve is usually machined at the factory, and the depth to which the nozzle tip will protrude into the cylinder depends on it. The outer surface of the sleeve also has two or three sealing portions. These sections isolate water on the upper and lower or on the lower and middle parts of the sleeve. In the heads of blocks with internal fuel supply channels, the upper o-ring also isolates the fuel from oil, and the middle o-ring prevents fuel from entering the cooling system.

Before attempting to replace these bushings, make sure that you have the necessary equipment for this. You will need special tools to remove and replace the tube, as well as to process the inner surface of the sleeve. The nozzle bushings are installed in the cylinder head to facilitate the passage of coolant through the cylinder head. Remember that whether you change the sleeve or not, you also need to check the fuel system and cooling system for leaks under pressure.

Nozzle bushings are made of various materials, according to the manufacturer’s specifications; they can be made of brass, copper, stainless steel or cast iron. Be prepared for variety, as bushings and o-rings are regularly improved.

Valves and valve seats

It is in valves and seats that the hardest, most active work takes place inside the cylinder head. BE CAREFULLY CAREFUL OF THEIR CHECK! Remember that with proper maintenance, modern diesel engines can function properly even after 1 million miles..

I advise you to replace all valves, seats, and valve guides if the engine has been running for more than 5000 hours, or 500,000 miles. You can save by purchasing spare parts on the secondary market, which in their technical characteristics are much superior to spare parts of the original manufacturer.

Often manufacturers’ price lists do not include all valves, seats and valve springs. You will find that some manufacturers issue newsletters for specific models, such as the D8K Cat with the D342 engine, according to which all exhaust seats must be replaced when restoring the block head.

Do not forget that your goal is the proper operation of the cylinder head for the entire time for which it is designed. There are specifications for each of the parts mentioned; make sure that they are strictly followed. You need to check for compliance with such standards as the height of the valve seat, the width of the edge of the valve disc, the clearance between the guide sleeve and the valve stem.

How many times have we heard from our customers that they cannot believe how well the engine starts and sounds after adjusting the depth of the valves. Depth of valve seating, as well as the thickness of the cylinder head are the most important parameters of the valve mechanism, affecting the duration of its operation.

If it is necessary to replace the valve seats, it will be most convenient to use a TIG welding torch to make a groove around the seat without using the filler rod, allow it to cool, and the seat will come out by itself. This method will in no way affect the diameter of the blind hole, unlike other methods.

For most modern diesel engines, replaceable valve guides are used, but some engines have guides built into the cylinder head. In this case, the mechanic must have the necessary tools to process and install a thin-walled guide sleeve in the head of the unit. We recommend a cast iron interchangeable rail with an outer diameter of 1 / 2˝. Grind the top and bottom of the sleeve and drill holes as needed to fit.

The pneumatic hammer is most suitable for replacing valve guides. Remove the bushing, clean the bore of the valve seat and set the bushing to the desired height. If necessary, drill so that the clearance between the guide sleeve and the valve stem meets the norm.

One of the most effective methods for machining cast-iron cylinder heads today are discs with cubic boron nitride (CBN).

If you have ever tried to treat the surface of a cylinder with a combustion chamber in this way (for example, cylinders in a 6.5-liter GM diesel), then you know that the nozzle atomizer must be stationary in the cylinder head. After each stroke of the cutting part of the tool, it is necessary to check whether the spray nozzle has shifted.

Before deciding whether to mill the cylinder head, you need to consider many factors. Firstly, you need to find out the minimum allowable thickness by checking the technical requirements. If the head is curved, you will either have to throw it away, or find a workshop where it can be straightened by a proven method like ours. Go for it.

Rex Baker is Head of Sales at Midwest Cylinder Head (Nevada, Iowa). Midwest Cylinder Head is engaged in the repair and full restoration of damaged cylinder heads made of aluminum and cast iron. The company specializes in welding heads and cylinder blocks, repair and restoration of both aluminum and cast-iron models of gas and diesel engines. MCH serves engines and related parts for cars and trucks, agricultural equipment and heavy machinery. The company provides its services to machine shops, car repair shops, agricultural and heavy machinery, engine manufacturers, as well as individuals


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    Restoration of the cylinder head of a diesel engine

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Updated BMW X1 8

Updated BMW X1

Updated BMW X1

Updated BMW X1 9

The well-known German automobile concern BMW showed an updated SUV of the X1 brand, which refers to the second generation of these popular models. European motorists will have the opportunity to purchase a new product in the middle of autumn of this year.

According to experts, the update in this car affected both the external design and the available power units, as well as possible transmission options, and the improvement of the chassis, along with additional equipment.

It is important to note that the new SUV is designed using the UKL1 front-wheel drive platform. Using the new chassis allowed for a more spacious interior and a larger trunk. So the useful volume of the trunk increased by 85 liters to a value of 505 liters.

The interior of the updated German car provides for the possibility of folding the rear seat in a proportion of 40:20:40, and also, if necessary, tilt and shift the seats longitudinally. In addition, you can fold the back of the seat designed for the front passenger. All this makes it possible to provide the maximum usable volume for the carriage of cargo in the trunk and in the cabin, reaching 1,550 liters..

All powertrains for the updated German SUV are designed to meet the strict Euro-6 standards. Four-cylinder turbocharged gasoline power units and diesel engines are used. Specialists of the German automaker were able to reduce harmful choices from the engines used, as well as fuel consumption by 17%.

According to BMW officials, a two-liter engine with a performance of 192 hp is considered the main one. Also, motorists will be able to choose a two-liter engine with a power of 231 hp. According to existing plans, from the end of autumn 2015, the updated BMW X1 model will also be equipped with three-cylinder gasoline or diesel engines, the performance of which reaches 136 hp. and 116 h.p. respectively. As a transmission, the new German SUV uses either a manual or automatic transmission.

There is information that, as before, the car can be produced both in front-wheel drive and all-wheel drive. It is important to add that the base modification will be an SUV, produced in a single-drive version.

According to experts, the new car is considered the first model in the BMW X family, which will be let in front-wheel performance. As for ground clearance, it will be 183 mm in the new model. It is likely that the updated model will sell well in Europe.


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Peugeot 308 Line - Image Above All 15

Peugeot 308 Line – Image Above All

Peugeot 308 Line – Image Above All

Peugeot 308 Line - Image Above All 16

Considering the Peugeot 308 model, you think that this is not a novelty, which was announced by the manufacturer, the car is very similar to the “fawn” 307. This is not surprising, the increased dimensions did not require an increase in the wheelbase. Everything is as it was before, and the steering mechanism, and the suspension, which some modernization would not prevent. But the designers of the company know better.

In the body configurations are presented sedans, hatchbacks (2 types), station wagons, and coupes with a monolithic roof. From the supply of BMW – the power block is very good! New installations from 95 to 175 liters. with, and another, 175 liter turbo engine. from. The units developed by BMW are manufactured at Peugeot’s production facilities, and a certain share of deliveries is made to the UK. In addition to gasoline ICEs, there are also diesel engines, up to 109 liters. with, and the most powerful in the line, 136-strong unit of 2.0 cc.

For all models, a mechanical transmission is proposed (5 gears). Automatic transmission (4 ranges) operates only with the leading power engines, including turbocharged, gasoline.

In the database, according to the Confort Pack version, there are: airbag (frontal), brake ABS EBD, air conditioning, power accessories of the front cabin modules, CD player. The Premium version offers: climate control, fog lights, full power accessories, alloy wheels, stabilization system (for ICE 140 + automatic transmission).

In the secondary market, the version with a gasoline installation of 120 liters is most in demand. from. The motor from the BMW EP6 is somewhat more expensive than its reliability pays off. The single “failure” is the timing chain drive. Presumably unkillable, but in fact requiring circuit replacement, in combination with components after 70 thousand km (approximately). It is recommended to replace the timing drive only in branded services, otherwise, if the work is performed by unskilled personnel, there are risks that the internal combustion engine will cost expensive overhaul.

Motorists who are fortunate enough to purchase Peugeot 308 diesel engines with turbines respond positively to the operation of the engines. A manual gearbox also reliably performs its functions, although it is necessary to work on gear ratios and noise insulation of the unit itself (cable, backlash, input shaft). In the process of operation, the linkage may loosen.

Automatic AL4 is not happy reliability. A worn-out hydraulic valve destroys the entire valve body, this provokes a break in the brake band and a complete stopper of the mechanism.

In the suspension, ball and stabilizers are called the most vulnerable spot, they must be replaced after 80 thousand km. Hub dampers and bearings – beyond praise, which applies to the rear (H) beam. Reliable brake system, especially discs, with timely maintenance no worries.


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Motor Oil Classification 22

Motor Oil Classification

Without keyword

It’s time to deal with car engine oil. This article will be useful, as for fans, i.e. for car owners as well as for professionals, i.e. those involved in the repair and maintenance of machines.

Very often in our “Hybrid Service” I observe the following picture: calls in for maintenance, for example Cadillac Escalade Hybrid, and its owner with a clever look says: “I must fill the oil with SAE GF5 of fiftieth viscosity”.

Or another example: the owner of a hybrid Porsche cayenne, posing as a connoisseur of motor oils, he declares: “Only the best oil, with prolonged action, category no less than C4, is to be poured into me!”.

It becomes both funny and sad. It’s ridiculous from such “experts”, but it’s sad that in our country people at least can read and write, that is, consider themselves educated and competent. Moreover, they own a car (and sometimes more than one). But they are completely illiterate in the operation of their car. Many even did not open the ABC book (operating and maintenance manual for their car). And if they did, they absolutely did not pay attention to what kind of oil the manufacturer REQUIRES to fill in your car!

Frankly, have you ever looked at the instructions for your car at least once, what kind of oil should be put into the engine of your car? What is his classification? Viscosity? (exactly the one recommended by the manufacturer).
Many, having read various forums, will immediately answer this question like this: “Why do we need to read the instructions! We already know that in our Prius we need to pour SL 5W30 oil.” And these people fall into an absolute stupor when in the store, having looked at all the oil cans, they cannot find the coveted letters. And they see, for example, the following:

Let’s try to sort things out..
To begin with, we have European, American and Japanese (Korean) cars..
And each country has its own requirements for automobile oils. Moreover, they are quite different from each other.

Consider the first Japanese oils.
Most Japanese engine manufacturers “play” on the change of valve timing. And in many cases, they use engine oil pressure for this. (e.g. VVTi system in Toyota Prius).

In addition, they pay special attention to friction pairs, i.e. on the reliability and durability of the engine. To do this, they impose certain requirements on automotive oils. And these requirements are classified by system Jaco. In Russia, oil intended for the domestic market of Japan cannot be found, therefore we will not dwell on it in detail.

All manufacturers of Japanese oils export them to the European and American markets. And no one is familiar with the Japanese JASO classification.

Classification Accepted On European Market ACEA.
Europeans have other basic requirements for automotive oils. First of all, they impose very stringent requirements on the antiwear and antioxidant properties of oils. According to “European” concepts, it is considered very good if, according to the specification, the oil has manufacturers’ approvals (for example BMW, MB, VW).

It is already universally recognized that the thermal mode of operation of the “European” ICE is more loaded or stressed. Therefore not so long ago ACEA classification has undergone small changes. So now, instead of class A2, A3 and A5 oils, classification oils marked A / B and C came.

What does this mean?
Bukovka A indicates that the oil is intended for a gasoline engine, and the number that stands for it indicates the class (category) of oil according to the gasoline classification.

Letter b indicates that this oil can be used for diesel engines of CARS. And accordingly, the figure behind it indicates the class (category) of oil according to the diesel classification.

For example, the oil in this photo has the highest classification for gasoline and diesel versions: A5 / B5.

Let’s dwell on oils “low SAPS”. They are marked with the letter C.

There are many different rumors and speculations about these oils. Shatter them. Decipher the abbreviation Saps spelling (the word low, I think I don’t need a translation).

SA – (sulphated ash) – ASH

What do we have in general?
But in general, we have oil, which when burned forms a small amount of ash. Why do you need such oil?
A diesel engine equipped with a turbine is usually equipped with a particulate filter. And each diesel engine that is equipped with a direct injection system, in its design contains a particulate filter without fail. In order not to “kill” such a filter ahead of time, it is recommended to use only low-ash engine oil. On the one hand, if we are discussing the operation of particulate filters, it means we are talking about soot. Ash does not seem to be featured here. Perhaps ash and soot are one and the same? We will try to understand all these difficulties, and identify the connection between two different concepts..

Soot is a product of incomplete combustion of fuel. Soot itself in high concentration contains carbon, i.e. graphite. This means that such material itself can, if desired, be burned, moreover, completely. Ash in its composition contains various metals, phosphorus and sulfur, well, and carbon in small quantities. It is impossible to burn ash, and when particles of ashes and soot of the same size get into the filter, the first of them remain there forever. Roughly speaking, the particulate filter is always clogged with ash during operation, but to use this process more slowly, it is recommended to use low-ash oil.

How are oils for large diesel engines labeled in Europe? They are labeled “E”. But we will not stop on diesels. I can only say that a very large number of detergents are added to diesel oils. Accordingly, the washing ability of such oils is an order of magnitude higher, but the sulfate ash content of such oils is also higher. (which is why they are not recommended for use in gasoline engines).

We turn to the most common labeling (classification) of oils for today – by API.
This is a purely American standard..

How American engines differ from European and Japanese?
Right! Volume! Six, and sometimes 8 liters of volume for the “American” is a kind of norm. And where can I apply such power to ICE? In the town? On a highway with video recording?

Alas, purebred Americans are forced to work half-heartedly … And in cities, they do a third of their capacity. It would seem that this should lead to the enormous reliability of such ICEs. But not everything goes smoothly here!

When the internal combustion engine is working half-heartedly, its heat load is greatly reduced and this in turn leads to the formation of low-temperature deposits (sludge). The rings on these ICEs quickly “coke” and the engine begins to consume oil in liters.

To prevent this, American ICE manufacturers require oil manufacturers to add ashless dispersants to engine oils. Sometimes their amount reaches 60% of the total amount of oil additives!

With the distinction of American oil and the requirements for it sorted out. Now let’s deal with the marking.
Let’s look at this picture:

According to the API classification, we see the following markings: Sm
We will consider this marking by letters, since in life you are doubling it most often (until everyone moves to the new international classification ILSAC).

So, the first letter “S” means that this oil is designed specifically for a gasoline engine. (for diesel the first letter will be “C”).

The second letter “M” indicates the class of oil. All modern engines have their own minimum tolerance class, which can be poured into this engine. Consider this on the example of the Toyota Prius in the 20 body. She, for those who do not like to look in the “primer” on the filler neck on the lid, made a reminder about what kind of oil can be poured into this engine. It says “SL”. Those. all oils that are of a class lower than the “SL” cannot be poured into this engine!

To know which class of oil is higher or lower, just turn to the English alphabet. The higher (further down the list) the letter in the alphabet goes, the higher the oil class.

Very often, customers ask the question: “Is it possible to add SM or SN oil to Prius?”.
The answer is simple: NOT, but NEEDED.!
The higher the class of oil filled in the engine, the longer your engine will work!
Above the “SL” class, only “SM” and “SN” class oils are currently available..

Motor Oil Classification 23

You and I need to consider the latest classification of oils ILSAC. It was developed and adopted by the international committee for the standardization of lubricants. Those. at the moment, there are such difficulties with the requirements for oils that it was decided to standardize them internationally.

The American Automobile Manufacturers Association (AAMA) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) have jointly established the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee.

As in the American API system, the ILSAC standard distinguishes between materials intended for gasoline engines and “diesel engines”. But the requirements developed now apply only to gasoline engines. No need to be surprised to see the label “For gasoline” or “Super Gasoline” on the label, while the API material corresponds to the SJ / CF class, which relates to “diesels” and gasoline ICEs at the same time.

We will not discuss which modern classification system is more accurate (API, ILSAC). We only note that the later the standard was developed, the more relevant it is..

In total, the ILSAC standard provides for five quality classes, from GF-1 to GF-5.
I note that if engine oil corresponds to one of these classes, it is suitable for use with a gasoline engine. But this does not mean that it cannot be operated with diesel engines. The ILSAC standard does not address the requirements for diesel oil, which can sometimes be confusing when choosing.

Which class according to different classification, which corresponds, you can look at the example of this photo:

We figured out your classification of motor oils.
In the next article, we will try to deal with the viscosity of motor oils. Those. we find out what is hiding behind the letters that stand after the oil class. What oils can and should be used in hybrid cars, and which are strictly not recommended.

Good luck on the road!


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Common Rail Diesel 29

Common Rail Diesel

Common Rail Diesel

Common Rail Diesel

This is the most modern stage in the evolution of gasoline and diesel engines with direct fuel injection. It differs from traditional diesel engines with a low fuel supply pressure in the presence of a ramp, where diesel fuel is supplied under high pressure (more than 1000 bar), which is further distributed between electric nozzles with solenoid valves. The third generation of Common Rail systems is characterized by the use of piezoelectric injectors to increase injection accuracy, quantitatively increase the injection phases, as well as increase the pressure of the fuel supply to the ramp (up to 1800 bar). A variation for gasoline engines is called Direct Injection (FSI, GDI, etc.)

Common Rail History

The prototype of the Common Rail system was developed in the late 60s by Robert Huber in Switzerland. Further, his technology was developed by Marco Ganser of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. In the mid-1990s, Dr. Shohei Ito and Masahiko Miyaki from DENSO Corporation, Japan, developed the Common Rail system for commercial vehicles and implemented it in the ECD-U2 system, which was used on HINO Rising Ranger trucks, and then sold the technology to others in 1995 to manufacturers. Therefore, DENSO is considered a pioneer in adapting the Common Rail system to the needs of the automotive industry. Modern Common Rail systems operate on the same principle. They are controlled by an Electronic Control Unit, which opens each injector electronically, not mechanically. This technology has been developed in detail by the combined efforts of Magneti Marelli, Centro Ricerche Fiat and Elasis. After FIAT developed the design and concept of the system, it was sold to the German company Robert Bosch GmbH for the subsequent completion of the development of the mass product. In general, this was a big miscalculation of FIAT, as the new technology has become very profitable. But the Italian concern at that time was in a deplorable financial condition and did not have the resources to complete the work. Nevertheless, Italians were the first to use the Common Rail system in 1997 on the Alfa Romeo 156 1.9 JTD and only then it appeared on the Mercedes-Benz C 220 CDI.

Engines Common rail used in shipbuilding and for locomotives. Cooper-Bessemer GN-8 system representative of the modified Common Rail system, where hydraulic control is used.

The principle of direct injection

English word COMMON RAIL denotes an equally high pressure in the accumulator tube (ramp), which is distributed across all cylinders. A submersible electric or vacuum pump delivers diesel fuel from the tank through the fuel heater and filter to the high pressure pump. It is driven by the engine and directs the fuel under high pressure into the ramp. For the normal operation of some types of systems, it is not necessary to constantly maintain the highest pressure. The ramp tubes are the same length and end with injectors. A pressure regulator is also located on the ramp, which sends the excess fuel back to the tank through the cooler. Using the pressure sensor in the ramp, the Engine Control Unit can receive information about the pressure in the ramp and monitor it.


The main sensors used in the system are the ramp pressure sensor, air flow sensor, camshaft and crankshaft sensors, temperature sensors of the engine and incoming air, accelerator pedal position sensor, heating system.


The solenoids in the Common rail system should respond within half a second: these are the injectors, the pressure regulator valve in the ramp, the turbocharger valve and the exhaust gas recirculation valve.


Injectors are turned on at the command of the controller – the EDC block by means of a magnetic solenoid. The hydraulic pressure force allows you to open and close the injector, however, activation occurs from the control unit. Some injectors have piezocrystals. Under the influence of a magnetic field, they increase in size. In a Piezo Inline type injector, the crystal is close to the needle and therefore does not use mechanical parts to turn on the needle. In early systems, double injection was used – pilot and primary to prevent detonation. In modern systems, up to six injection phases are used. Each injector is manufactured and tested in the laboratory, where a specific code is assigned to it according to the measured data of its operation. After replacing the injectors, the code must be registered in the memory of the control unit using a scanner.

Reasons for crowding out traditional diesel engines:

Better environmental emission data, less noise, cheaper component production.

Common rail today

Currently, each manufacturer has its own abbreviation, which stands for COMMON RAIL system:
– BMW: D-engines (also used by Land Rover Freelander as TD4)
– Cummins and Scania: XPI (Joint Development)
– Cummins: CCR (Cummins Pump with Bosch Injectors)
– Daimler: CDI (for Chrysler and Jeep – CRD)
– Fiat: Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Lancia – JTD (also called MultiJet, JTDm, Ecotec CDTi, TiD, TTiD, DDiS, Quadra-Jet)
– Ford Motor: TDCi Duratorq and Powerstroke
– General Motors: Opel / Vauxhall – CDTi (manufactured by Fiat and GM Daewoo) and DTi for Isuzu
– General Motors: Daewoo / Chevrolet – VCDi (licensed from VM Motori also has the Ecotec CDTi brand)
– Honda: i-CTDi
– Hyundai and Kia: CRDi
– Mahindra: CRDe
– Maruti Suzuki: DDiS (manufactured under license from Fiat)
– Mazda: CiTD
– Mitsubishi: DI-D (recently developed a new generation of 4N1 with pressure
– in the injection system up to 2000 bar)
– Nissan: dCi
– PSA Peugeot Citroen: HDI or HDi (Volvo S40 / V50 uses engines from PSA 1.6D & 2.0D, also uses the JTD brand)
– Renault: dCi

– SsangYong: XDi (engines are assembled under license from Daimler AG)
– Subaru Legacy: TD (since January 2008)
– Tata: DICOR
– Toyota: D-4D
– Volkswagen Group: Engine 4.2 V8 TDI and the latest 2.7 and 3.0 TDI (V6) replaced the old electronic diesel engines. The 2.0 TDI engine is used on the Volkswagen Tiguan and Audi A4. New 2.0 TDI will also be available soon for Passat and in 2009 for Jetta.
– Volvo: 2.4D and D5
– Skoda: TDI


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