Effective car acceleration - Car driving 2

Effective car acceleration – Car driving

Effective car acceleration

The main mistake is the slipping of the drive wheels (when the car is stationary, and the drive wheels rotate). If on any surface, whether asphalt or ice, you do not allow it, then consider that you already own a piece of skill. How to learn this?

On a flat road, preferably on an unloaded car (with a manual transmission), at idle, turn 1st gear and start the first movement without pressing the accelerator pedal at all, i.e. working only with the clutch pedal. When the car starts moving (idle speed), stop it by “pressing the clutch” and repeat again. It turned out? Try the same thing, but using 2nd gear. Do not overdo it! Two or three times happened – enough!

At such a start of movement, your drive wheels will not slip – there will not be enough engine power and, in extreme cases, it will simply stall. In ordinary life, we, of course, will not start the movement like this, except in rare cases when it’s very slippery. The conclusion is simple: the lower the engine speed at the start of movement, the greater the likelihood that there will be no slipping! In order to make the car easier to start moving, the front wheels must be set strictly straight!

But how can one accelerate quickly on slippery ice? More about this below.

The beginning of the movement or “acceleration”, to put it simply. Many will even name the necessary terms — weather tires, a powerful motor — and they will be right, but only partially. What else is important to know, and most importantly – to be able to?

We dare to remind you that the main mistake is, firstly, the driving wheels of your car skidding in place. The car is not located in a straight line with respect to the direction of movement, and the front wheels are turned (do not stand strictly straight). This is the second. How to learn to feel the beginning of slipping? A simple exercise, with the beginning of movement without “gas”, we think, did not cause great difficulties.

Lesson two. Subtle sensations

The car stands with the engine running on level ground. Engage I gear and slowly release the clutch pedal. There will come a moment when your car, before you start moving, as if “straining”. Pay attention to this, try to feel it.!

After the moment of “tension”, if you release the clutch a little more, movement will begin. But, as soon as the car makes a rush to move, and the wheels turn slightly, press the clutch exactly enough so that it stops and the “tension” is eliminated. Performing this non-stop, you will swing the car on the spot. The smaller the amplitude, the better! Ideally – the tires are in place, and the rim barely noticeably turns back and forth.

Exercise can be performed anytime, anywhere, it is absolutely safe. Now you know exactly how your grip works and in what range. By the way, all of the above can be done on a car with automatic transmission.

The next stage of training and sensations. The car stands still, you increase the engine speed to any value (for example, 2.500 rpm.) And hold it for a long time. It is better to do this by looking at the instrument – the tachometer, if there is, and if not, then by ear. Your task, by turning on I gear, start moving while holding the engine speed that you set before. From the beginning to the end of the exercise, the turns are the same – they do not fall and do not rise. Doing it all the better on the site, where there is no movement of cars and pedestrians. At the first attempts, it is better to look at the tachometer, again, if there is one. You need to start with a slight increase in speed and, as you complete it, complicate the task by increasing them. It is important to pay attention to the speed of releasing the clutch pedal, namely: try to do this as soon as possible.

If everything is done absolutely correctly, then the car accelerates quickly and without slipping, and the higher the engine speed that you hold, the faster. There comes a time when the execution becomes impossible due to the occurrence of slippage. Most often, this means that for a given pavement you have crossed the line and the engine speed is too high. The conclusion is simple: the higher the coefficient of adhesion, the greater the speed for quick acceleration we can afford! Performing acceleration in this way, you begin to catch the beginning of slipping, if you make a mistake – this is the uniqueness of the exercise.

Acceleration tricks and the start of movement

1. If you need to win the “start”, then the maximum form of your readiness for this is when the engine speed is chosen correctly, the front wheels are straight, and the car swings slightly in place (see Exercise above);

2. At the beginning of the movement, the center of gravity of the vehicle shifts back, loading the rear wheels. If a car with rear-wheel drive, this increases the acceleration efficiency, and if with a front-wheel drive it lowers (front, driving wheels are loaded). Using the rocking technique in place, i.e. moving the car back and forth, you and the center of gravity move back and forth. Using its movement (depending on the type of drive of your car), you can increase the efficiency of the starting moment, and even on very slippery roads start moving without slipping.

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Tuning devices - Tuning - A variety of tips for motorists - Everything for a car in St. Petersburg 4

Tuning devices – Tuning – A variety of tips for motorists – Everything for a car in St. Petersburg

Tuning appliances

The dashboard of a modern car offers the driver the necessary minimum of information and control functions regarding the operation of the car and the route. But recently, especially on tuning cars, there are more and more additional devices, meters and systems that make the car look like a Christmas tree. And I must admit that most often it is. But there are real masters of “taxiing” who use additional devices for their intended purpose and derive very great benefit from this.

All additional, freelance appliances in the car can be divided into two large groups: meters and processors. Meters, as the name implies, are used to measure and inform the driver about the functioning parameters of certain components, assemblies or the car as a whole. Processors are more complex devices. They not only measure and reproduce information, but also manage individual vehicle systems. The topic of additional automotive appliances is very broad. And, guided by the principle of “from simple to complex”, we begin with simple – with “Christmas toys”. Despite the fact that today the driver is provided with all the information necessary for the normal operation of the car, this is not enough for everyone. And here the key phrase is “normal operation”. Those who drive the car to the limit need additional performance indicators of components and assemblies. But even more important is the fact that alternative devices compared to the standard ones are more accurate and have a faster response, reaction. This is almost the main reason for installing such meters on charged cars..

Alternative meters are different. The simplest, most understandable and, as a consequence, common – pointer meters. They are quite familiar dials with one or several hands, the deviation of which determines one or another indicator. The usual speedometer and tachometer are characteristic “switchmen”. The design of the gauges is different. There are purely mechanical, analog. Inside the meter is a device for reading and interpreting the information received. A striking example is the pressure sensor in the intake manifold. It is connected via a special tube directly to the intake manifold. Other meters are electrical, digital. These meters are equipped with special remote sensors, and the usual electric wire and information in the form of electronic pulses, rather than gas, oil or another mechanical drive, themselves approach them. It seems that there is no need to explain which of these two options is most convenient to use. I can only say one thing: such devices are often networked under the control of a special controller-dispatcher. The information content and capabilities of such a system are very wide. Many believe that the response of analog meters is higher than that of electronic meters. Perhaps it used to be, but today the electrical engineering is so perfect that such statements seem somewhat retrograde. Moreover, now it is digital devices that prevail in the market of additional devices. Modern electronics also offers a variety of meter options based on LCD displays. Their main advantage is compactness. A garland of 10 additional devices, hung on the dashboard and front struts, is able to replace a small instrument with a liquid crystal display. Very often they are multifunctional, that is, capable of showing the driver several different parameters. Moreover, the price factor has almost equalized, and an LCD panel with a set of remote sensors costs almost the same as a set of separate pointer devices with a control controller. It is also important that liquid crystal monitors are more and more not just meters, but devices with the function of controlling and adjusting the parameters of various car systems. That is, in fact, already processors. But here is what touches most of all. Very often, along with digital data feed, they allow you to display them in the classic, arrow-digital-thieves version. Still, this option of presenting information is more convenient for dynamic driving, when there is no time to read a word or even a number, and the instrument scales have already been memorized after some time and the position of the arrow on the dial can be read literally from the edge of the eye. There are also combined options, that is, along with the arrows and the scale there is a small LCD display on which the same data is displayed, but in a digital version or additional information. Meters with a warning cut-off can be equipped with both a separate alarm lamp and a system for changing the contrast of the backlight of the scale. Many of them also have a warning buzzer. By the way, about the cut-off, etc., additional elements of the meters. Almost all meters are now equipped with a certain limitation on the maximum permissible value. Whether it’s critical speed, temperature or pressure – everything can be limited.

More often like additional device on the dash can be found tachometer (even for cars on which it is installed regularly). And it is the tachometer, as a rule, the largest of the alternative meters. While the usual diameters of the instrument scales are 50–60 mm, tachometers can be found at all 120 mm. Alternative tachometers are no longer just an engine speed indicator. The simplest of them are equipped with an additional restrictive mark, which the driver can set independently. More serious devices are equipped with a cutoff at maximum speed with light indication of limit values ​​and a memory for several seconds or even minutes. Cutting off to the maximum is convenient for everyone, because, for example, using an additional light warning, this tachometer is capable, as they say, in a very bright and accessible form to announce to the driver that the limit of engine speed has been reached and it is necessary to reduce gas. But the recording function is useful for advanced riders. Having the opportunity to see the engine speed in real time when passing a certain route, the driver can then identify their mistakes. For example, when exiting this bend, the gas was dumped too much, and in this place went too far, etc. Additional speedometers are also quite common. And just here we are talking about roving standard devices. The desire to obtain more accurate information forces to acquire an alternative. These devices can be either mechanical (i.e., via a cable), or, which is now more common, electronic. The latter also has an odometer.

Another large subspecies of gauges is thermometers. In an ordinary car, we use only a coolant temperature meter. In tuning, temperature measurement is much more popular. Oil temperature can provide additional information on the cooling efficiency of the engine, which is extremely important when driving intensively. It may be necessary to install an oil pump with a higher capacity, another oil pan with more efficient heat dissipation. And perhaps even the introduction of a special oil cooler. The temperature of the exhaust gases gives an understanding of how correctly the mixture formation and the combustion process are carried out. So, for example, their temperature is too high (the average rate is about 900 OS) can indicate excessive depletion of the working mixture. The temperature of the incoming air will tell you the reason for the decrease in power due to poor filling of the cylinders and a possible cause of detonation. And the temperature after the BBO (air-to-air cooler, or intercooler) can tell how well it copes with its task. Some advanced companies install special oil temperature gauges in the transmission. Both mechanical and automatic transmissions, when operating in extreme modes, get very hot, and therefore the introduction of such a device is a very useful thing. And even the banal temperature of the outside air can sometimes seriously help the driver, and sometimes even save his life, notifying in time that there is already a minus and ice is possible in this place of the route.

Another category of gauges is manometers. These devices are designed to show the pressure of gases or liquids. The most famous gauge from this cohort is Boost, Turbo or Turbo boost, in short, boost pressure meter. This data is necessary for driving cars equipped with supercharging. There are interesting solutions in which this meter is double, that is, with two arrows of different colors. One shows the pressure after the supercharger, and the other is already in the intake manifold, after the BBO. Fuel pressure is also measured. When installing nozzles and a fuel pump of increased productivity, this meter allows you to monitor the pressure in the fuel system, giving an idea of ​​the correctness of its operation. Oil pressure for highly accelerated engines is a vital indicator. Oil loses its properties, the oil pump ceases to cope with its tasks, or for a number of other reasons, the pressure in the lubrication system may decrease. This threatens with the fact that the so-called oil wedge, i.e., the layer of oil that appears between the two rubbing parts, may be sold or completely disappear. The result is very deplorable. And, it would seem, the exhaust gas pressure gauge looks quite exotic. This indicator gives the driver information about the back pressure in the exhaust tract, which can seriously reduce engine power. Guided by the readings of this meter, the driver can determine the optimal engine speed, identify the high back pressure zone, make the necessary settings, refine the exhaust system, etc..

Special mention deserves additional electrical meters. Given that modern cars are literally crammed with various electronics, the efficiency of the generator and the battery is extremely important. That is why volt and ammeters appear on the instrument panel. For a sports car and a charged one, and especially equipped with a variety of multimedia equipment, this issue is even more important. The operation and purpose of these meters is similar to well-known devices. A voltmeter measures voltage fluctuations in the on-board network, and an ammeter illustrates the process of charging and discharging a battery. Of this pair, the voltmeter is the most informative, but in a pair these devices give the most complete picture of the power supply system of the entire car, allowing you to determine almost any malfunction.

As mentioned above, meters are offered in various sizes. The most popular: 52, 60, 115 and 120 mm. The largest are mainly tachometers. Mechanical meters are usually quite deep and create more installation problems. But electrical appliances are very compact. There are devices literally a couple of centimeters deep. Finding a place for them is much easier, even in modern cars, where every inch of free space counts. In this regard, it must be said that there are many options for dual, built, etc. meters. We are talking about devices on the same dial which fits several different devices. This decision is aimed at reducing the excessive filling of the dashboard of the car, but most drivers prefer separate options. True, recently very successful combinations of various devices have appeared, whose information shown together is even more convenient both for perception and for decision making. The colors are quite diverse. You can find almost all the basic colors of the rainbow. Fashion for carbon is not left out. A variety of backlights, LED indicators, luminous arrows, numbers, etc. There are meters with adjustable brightness and color of the backlight. So, for example, you can inform the driver about changes in instrument readings. For example, green or blue backlight indicates normal, orange indicates a warning, and red indicates a critical situation. Speaking about meters, it is necessary to mention other ways of presenting information. In addition to the “arrow classics”, one can also find a variety of luminous rulers and radial scales with different color gradations and many other options for every taste. Also, one cannot fail to mention projection systems that demonstrate different plan information on the windshield in front of the driver. Current speed, revolutions, turn signals, warning signals, etc. appear in the lower part of the glass and inform the driver without distracting him from driving.

Alternative meters, as well as standard instruments on the dashboard, are developing as rapidly as the cars themselves. It is likely that soon the classic switches will replace the multifunctional LCDs. Such developments are not just carried out – there are existing models. Serial production of such machines is just around the corner. A more distant perspective looks even more fantastic. It is possible that the information will be projected directly onto the retina of a person’s eye or even transmitted directly to the brain. But, most likely, personal transport of the future will not have any devices at all. Why load a person with unnecessary information. Let them watch movies, news, talk on the phone, do business. The car itself will bring the owner to the place designated by him. And information about the state of components and assemblies of the car will automatically flock to the after-sales service. When it will be necessary, the car itself in its free time from trips will go to service and return to its owner fully equipped. And Christmas toys will then have only their original meaning..

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Idle stabilization systems 7

Idle stabilization systems

Idle stabilization systems

Without keyword

From the point of view of the theory of automatic control (TAP), these systems belong to closed loop systems with feedback. What is it expressed?
Like any system, the AR (automatic control) system has a closed loop:

Bypassing the throttle is set idle speed control. It is located in the so-called bypass channel (from the English word by pass – “pass by”):

The executive mechanism is the idle speed controller. We will consider the device a bit later.

The sensor (see Fig. 1) is the engine speed sensor. No matter how it works. Its task is to determine the actual engine speed. As this sensor can be used:
1.Crankshaft sensor.
2. Camshaft sensor.
3.Engine speed sensor.

The object of regulation is the engine, more precisely, its speed.

The comparison circuit located in the engine control unit compares the actual engine speed with the one that is currently needed (set by the master) and instructs the actuator to open the bypass channel for supplying additional air more or less. Thus, idle speed is always kept at a predetermined level..
On the scanner screen we see the following picture:

And now we press the gas pedal. We already do not need a stabilization system XX! We need to go, increase the speed – and this system will strive to return them to the established?!
When the idle contacts open in the throttle position sensor, the “feedback” loop opens, and the system ceases to track the set engine speed. Moreover, the regulator XX (idle) on commands from the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) moves it towards increasing the speed of XX. With a sharp release of the gas pedal (braking), the system “picks up” revolutions at the level of the order of 1000-1500 rpm and smoothly lowers them to idle revolutions, preventing the engine from stalling during transient conditions.
Thus, the presence of the IDLE parameter is fundamental to the operation of the idle stabilization system.

What do we see in reality? Does the engine have reduced speed XX? Instead of cleaning the throttle channels, let’s wind the screw to adjust its initial position! Turnover increased? Pay the money and leave! And the fact that the IDLE parameter has changed from ON to OFF and the system has ceased to maintain the speed of XX (they forgot about TPS!) – this does not matter …

Ryazanov
Fedor Alexandrovich
(father)- Head of the InjectorKar Training Center

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Features off-road driving 13

Features off-road driving

Features off-road driving

Every person and motorist is no exception, loves to communicate with nature, but always meets obstacles in his path that you cannot overcome without a certain skill.

If there is no experience, you have to spend a lot of time and effort to drive a hundred, or even ten meters. It can be snow or sand drifts, ford or deep puddle, slippery rise or slope, a blurred road or with a deep track. The skill comes with time, and knowledge of the basic techniques found by drivers and prompted by life itself will help reduce it. The ability to overcome one or another obstacle is limited by a number of factors: traction available to the drive wheels; their adhesion to the ground; distance from the reference plane of the wheels to the lowest point of the car (ground clearance), the height of the location and the security of nodes that are afraid of water (distributor, ignition coil, spark plugs and exhaust pipe).

A few words should be said about the effort on the drive wheels. There are concepts such as torque and transmission ratios. These parameters are set by the designer. Each driver can change their optimal values ​​by varying the engine speed and including one or another gearbox transmission. When do you have to use the maximum value of these parameters? When driving on soft ground, when the wheels sink deep, but do not skid. Here, in front of the rear and front wheels, rollers formed. Their wheels partially crush, partially push in front of them. Almost all engine energy is spent on this work. When it runs out, the engine speed and vehicle speed are reduced despite the increased pressure on the accelerator pedal. Jerks occur in the transmission. The car is exhausted, exhausted, unable to overcome resistance. What can be done in this situation? First of all, you should lighten the car as much as possible by disembarking passengers or removing the load. Then you need to smoothly move back and also smoothly, having dispersed, “ram” the formed obstacle.

If you are stuck in mud or snow in a car with an automatic transmission, do not try to swing the stalled car.

Features off-road driving 14

First of all, we’ll understand what should be understood by the term “buildup”. Everyone who has ever pulled out a stuck car knows that if they couldn’t do it the first time, they should be pushed synchronously with their own oscillation frequency in the knurled recess. The amplitude of movements increases, And at some point the wheels roll over an obstacle.

The same result can be achieved if, simultaneously with the rocking of the car, the first and rear speeds are switched, “pushing” it with the engine. Since the period of natural vibrations of a stuck car rarely exceeds one second, it is necessary to work with the gear lever with maximum intensity. But the manual is good because it turns on almost instantly. “Automatic” is more “thoughtful”, after moving the selector knob, it needs a few tenths of a second. Some designs can reduce this gap by increasing engine speed even before the transmission is fully connected. But at the same time, gear shifting takes place more rigidly, and the load on the clutches of the box increases many times.

Often, turned front wheels interfere with getting out of a deep gauge. Sometimes it’s enough to install them directly so that the car will move. Sometimes, to leave the deep rut, it is not enough to turn the wheels. In this case, you need to dig a shallow exit in front or behind in the direction of the vehicle with a shovel.

When approaching a difficult section of the road, try to remember that the greater the inertia of the car, the higher the engine speed and lower the gear, the greater the resistance the car can overcome. Therefore, having previously assessed the severity of the obstacle, find such a mode of movement to slip the entire section on the move. Of course, on the way there may be such soil, sand or snow that the wheels get stuck on the hub and the car sits on the bottom. To prevent this from happening, first on the rut you should lay down everything that comes to hand: boards, branches, stones. In an extreme case, when very viscous soil is caught, and attempts to get out on their own are ineffective, it is better not to damage the car, resort to the help of a tugboat, winch or jack.

With the help of a manual winch, you can quickly pull out a stuck car weighing up to 1 ton. Rural residents, hunters and fishers, whose path is usually not limited to asphalt, such a winch is simply necessary. She is able to come to the aid of a car stuck on a slippery slope, in a river or in a deep puddle. The support for the winch (if it does not have a special device) can be a tree, stake, shovel and even a mounting blade made of a chauffeur tool.

Great help in overcoming difficult sections is provided by various devices on driving wheels: chains, bracelets, staples of different designs. An effective and probably the easiest device to overcome slipping is a metal mesh with 20×20 mm mesh, which is placed under the wheels. Two strips of such a grid measuring 0.4×1.5 m are easy to place in the trunk.

Every driver should know that the higher the engine speed and the transmission is sharper, the sooner the drive wheels will slip. To avoid this, you need to learn how to “feel” the engine. This is perhaps the most difficult to find and maintain an optimal regime, which in many cases will ensure success. How can this be learned? Only through training. Drive on packed snow in first gear. Try slowly and then faster to increase the crankshaft speed using the accelerator pedal. The car will accelerate first, then at some point its speed will begin to decline, and the engine will “howl” without your intervention. This will mean that one or two driving wheels slipped (slipped) and, since the resistance to their rotation sharply decreased, the engine speed increased.

Now repeat the maneuver, carefully listening to the engine. As soon as the speed of the crankshaft starts to increase arbitrarily, smoothly remove the “gas”, switch to second gear, the base accelerate the car.

During the training process, you will notice that the car is sensitive not only to changing the engine speed, but also to manipulating the clutch pedal. It is worth a bit sharper to let her go, immediately followed by a wheel slip. Overcoming a difficult area, it is better not to touch this pedal at all, so that there is no reason for the stop. If the clutch cannot be dispensed with in a specific situation, you need to turn it on and off smoothly and carefully, focusing on the engine speed.

The crankshaft speed must be constant when driving on slippery roads. Do not forget that any change in engine operating conditions may cause an unexpected and undesired stop. It’s unpleasant when a stretch of muddy road appears on the way, and even with a deep track, for pulling out a car that has settled on a bridge or underside is almost an art. In fact, in other cases it is enough to push it or take it in tow. Here, such actions can lead to damage to components and parts located under the bottom. Having met such a blurred stretch of road, you must first carefully examine it and, if necessary, prepare for a successful overcoming. When the track is too deep on a long stretch of the track, try to keep it between the wheels. Driving along hard and wide ridges is not difficult, but on soft and narrow ridges it is very difficult. In order not to move from the ridges to a deep rut, it is better when the wheels of one side are on a rut and the other on the side of the road. In this position, it is much easier to keep the desired direction, since the wheels going along the rut almost do not require control.

The caveats are undoubtedly helpful. But what about when the car still got on the ground? First of all, you need to get out of the car and look around. Depending on the reasons and specific road conditions, the necessary measures should be taken. In most cases, it is advisable to bring the car back. If it does not work out, you must try to lift it with a jack and remove the “excess” earth. Particular attention should be paid to installing the jack, since the place for it is often inappropriate, dirt or sand. A board, a flat stone is usually placed under the heel of the tool, but so that its upper part is located at a distance of 0.150.20 m from the car’s doors, otherwise the jack will damage it when fully lifted.

Only in one case can the jack be replaced by a tug without the risk of damaging the car when the front wheels hit a moat or pit. In this case, the end face of the log or connected by the letter X two poles are substituted under the tow rope, tilting them towards the car. When pulling the cable, the front part will rise and the car will move forward.

The last barrier on the thorny path is water. There is probably no need to say that “without knowing the ford, do not get into the water.” And if you still climbed, move slowly. Troubles can begin if water floods the breaker-distributor and the ignition coil, spark plugs or even worse gets into the exhaust pipe. If the engine froze due to the fault of the distributor, candles or coils, they can be opened, turned off and wiped or blown with a stream of compressed air from the pump. These operations are unpleasant to perform while standing in the water, but still this is the way out. An engine stopped in water with a muffler exhaust pipe flooded is useless. It is necessary to pull the car ashore and remove water from the pipe, driving to the hill.

Features off-road driving 15

Overcoming serious water obstacles, remember that high speed does not guarantee safe passage and, above all, for the engine. Water can enter the intake manifold, and not far from the cylinders. If there is a lot of it, water hammer is inevitable. Water, unlike air, is incompressible: the piston will hit the water from the entire stroke, as if into a wall, and the pressure in the cylinder will exceed the norm several times.

Bent or broken connecting rods result from unsuccessful crossing of a water barrier.

It happens that the engine (if the speed is low) can simply stop. Try to start it with a starter. If it does not work, turn out the candles and crank the crankshaft.

Water will exit the cylinders through the holes and the engine can be started. If there is a knock in the block, it means that the connecting rods are damaged and the motor must be stopped immediately. If everything worked out you were very lucky.

Having passed through the water, the level of which reaches the brake drums, be sure to dry the brakes. To do this, pull the hand brake lever slightly. Pay particular attention to this operation..

The situations considered, of course, do not give an idea of ​​all the cases that are possible where the road is not well-maintained. As experience shows, knowledge, ingenuity and resourcefulness help to find a way out of any position..

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Off-road driving - Driving a car 19

Off-road driving – Driving a car

Off road driving

Everyone loves to communicate with nature, but always meets obstacles in their path that you cannot overcome without a certain skill. If there is no experience, you have to spend a lot of time and effort to drive a hundred, or even ten meters. It can be snow or sand drifts, ford or deep puddle, slippery rise or slope, a blurred road or with a deep track. The skill comes with time, and knowledge of the basic techniques found by drivers and prompted by life itself will help reduce it. The ability to overcome one or another obstacle is limited by a number of factors: traction available to the drive wheels; their adhesion to the ground; distance from the reference plane of the wheels to the lowest point of the car (ground clearance), the height of the location and the security of nodes that are afraid of water (distributor, ignition coil, spark plugs and exhaust pipe). * A few words should be said about the effort on the drive wheels. There are concepts such as torque and transmission ratios. These parameters are set by the designer. Each driver can change their optimal values ​​by varying the engine speed and including one or another gearbox transmission. When do you have to use the maximum value of these parameters? When driving on soft ground, when the wheels sink deep, but do not skid. Here, in front of the rear and front wheels, rollers formed. Their wheels partially crush, partially push in front of them. Almost all engine energy is spent on this work. When it runs out, the engine speed and vehicle speed are reduced despite the increased pressure on the accelerator pedal. Jerks occur in the transmission. The car is exhausted, exhausted, unable to overcome resistance. What can be done in this situation? First of all, you should lighten the car as much as possible by disembarking passengers or removing the load. Then you need to smoothly move back and also smoothly, having dispersed, “ram” the formed obstacle.

* If you are stuck in mud or snow in a car with an automatic transmission, do not try to swing the stalled car.

First of all, we’ll understand what should be understood by the term “buildup”. Everyone who has ever pulled out a stuck car knows that if they couldn’t do it the first time, they should be pushed synchronously with their own oscillation frequency in the knurled recess. The amplitude of movements increases, And at some point the wheels roll over an obstacle.

The same result can be achieved if, simultaneously with the rocking of the car, the first and rear speeds are switched, “pushing” it with the engine. Since the period of natural vibrations of a stuck car rarely exceeds one second, it is necessary to work with the gear lever with maximum intensity. But the manual is good because it turns on almost instantly. “Automatic” is more “thoughtful”, after moving the selector knob, it needs a few tenths of a second. Some designs can reduce this gap by increasing engine speed even before the transmission is fully connected. But at the same time, gear shifting takes place more rigidly, and the load on the clutches of the box increases many times.

* Turned front wheels often interfere with getting out of a deep gauge. Sometimes it’s enough to install them directly so that the car will move. Sometimes, to leave the deep rut, it is not enough to turn the wheels. In this case, you need to dig a shallow exit in front or behind in the direction of the vehicle with a shovel.

* When approaching an impassable stretch of road, try to remember that the greater the inertia of the car, the higher the engine speed and lower the gear, the greater the resistance the car can overcome. Therefore, having previously assessed the severity of the obstacle, find such a mode of movement to slip the entire section on the move. Of course, on the way there may be such soil, sand or snow that the wheels get stuck on the hub and the car sits on the bottom. To prevent this from happening, first on the rut you should lay down everything that comes to hand: boards, branches, stones. In an extreme case, when very viscous soil is caught, and attempts to get out on their own are ineffective, it is better not to damage the car, resort to the help of a tugboat, winch or jack.

* Using a manual winch, you can quickly pull out a stuck car weighing up to 1 ton. Rural residents, hunters and fishers, whose path is usually not limited to asphalt, such a winch is simply necessary. She is able to come to the aid of a car stuck on a slippery slope, in a river or in a deep puddle. The support for the winch (if it does not have a special device) can be a tree, stake, shovel and even a mounting blade made of a chauffeur tool.

* Great help in overcoming difficult sections is provided by various devices on driving wheels: chains, bracelets, staples of different designs. An effective and probably the easiest device to overcome slipping is a metal mesh with 20×20 mm mesh, which is placed under the wheels. Two strips of such a grid measuring 0.4×1.5 m are easy to place in the trunk.

* Each driver should know that the higher the engine speed and the transmission is sharper, the sooner the drive wheels will slip. To avoid this, you need to learn how to “feel” the engine. This is perhaps the most difficult – to find and maintain an optimal regime, which in many cases will ensure success. How can this be learned? Only through training. Drive on packed snow in first gear. Try slowly and then faster to increase the crankshaft speed using the accelerator pedal. The car will accelerate first, then at some point its speed will begin to decline, and the engine will “howl” without your intervention. This will mean that one or two driving wheels slipped (slipped) and, since the resistance to their rotation sharply decreased, the engine speed increased.

Now repeat the maneuver, carefully listening to the engine. As soon as the speed of the crankshaft starts to increase arbitrarily, smoothly remove the “gas”, switch to second gear, the base accelerate the car.

During the training process, you will notice that the car is sensitive not only to changing the engine speed, but also to manipulating the clutch pedal. It is worth a bit sharper to let her go, immediately followed by a wheel slip. Overcoming a difficult area, it is better not to touch this pedal at all, so that there is no reason for the stop. If the clutch cannot be dispensed with in a specific situation, you need to turn it on and off smoothly and carefully, focusing on the engine speed.

* The crankshaft speed must be constant when driving on slippery roads. Do not forget that any change in engine operating conditions may cause an unexpected and undesired stop. It’s unpleasant when a stretch of muddy road appears on the road, and even with a deep track, for pulling out a car that has settled on a bridge or underbody is almost an art. In fact, in other cases it is enough to push it or take it in tow. Here, such actions can lead to damage to components and parts located under the bottom. Having met such a blurred stretch of road, you must first carefully examine it and, if necessary, prepare for a successful overcoming. When the track is too deep on a long stretch of the track, try to keep it between the wheels. Driving along hard and wide ridges is not difficult, but on soft and narrow ridges it is very difficult. In order not to slide off the ridges into a deep rut, it is better when the wheels of one side are on a rut and the other on the side of the road. In this position, it is much easier to keep the desired direction, since the wheels going along the rut almost do not require control.

* Caveats are undoubtedly helpful. But what about when the car still got on the ground? First of all, you need to get out of the car and look around. Depending on the reasons and specific road conditions, the necessary measures should be taken. In most cases, it is advisable to bring the car back. If it does not work out, you must try to lift it with a jack and remove the “excess” earth. Particular attention should be paid to the installation of the jack, since the place for it is often inappropriate, – dirt or sand. Under the heel, the krat house usually lay a board, a flat stone, but with the expectation that the top of the jack is 0.15-0.20 m from the car door, otherwise the jack will damage it when fully lifted.

Only in one case can the jack be replaced by a tug without the risk of damaging the car when the front wheels hit a moat or pit. In this case, the end face of the log or connected by the letter X two poles are substituted under the tow rope, tilting them towards the car. When pulling the cable, the front part will rise and the car will move forward.

* The last obstacle on the thorny path is water. There is probably no need to say that “without knowing the ford, do not get into the water.” And if you still climbed, move slowly. Troubles can begin if water floods the breaker-distributor and the ignition coil, spark plugs or even worse – it gets into the exhaust pipe. If the engine froze due to the fault of the distributor, candles or coils, they can be opened, turned off and wiped or blown with a stream of compressed air from the pump. These operations are unpleasant to perform while standing in the water, but still this is the way out. An engine stopped in water with a muffler exhaust pipe flooded is useless. It is necessary to pull the car ashore and remove water from the pipe, driving to the hill.

* Overcoming serious water obstacles, remember that high speed does not guarantee safe passage and, above all, for the engine. Water can enter the intake manifold, and not far from the cylinders. If there is a lot of it, water hammer is inevitable. Water, unlike air, is incompressible: the piston will hit the water from the entire stroke, as if into a wall, and the pressure in the cylinder will exceed the norm several times.

Bent or broken connecting rods – the result of a failure to force a water barrier.

It happens that the engine (if the speed is low) can simply stop. Try to start it with a starter. If it does not work, turn out the candles and crank the crankshaft.

Water will exit the cylinders through the holes and the engine can be started. If there is a knock in the block, it means that the connecting rods are damaged and the motor must be stopped immediately. If everything worked out – you are very lucky.

* Having passed through the water, the level of which reaches the brake drums, be sure to dry the brakes. To do this, pull the hand brake lever slightly. Pay particular attention to this operation..

* The situations considered, of course, do not give an idea of ​​all the cases that are possible where the road is not well-maintained. As experience shows, knowledge, ingenuity and resourcefulness help to find a way out of any position..

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