Electronic car security systems 2

Electronic car security systems

Without keyword

Electronic car security systems 3

The principle of operation of the steering wheel position sensor is quite simple. Consider this as an example of SAS mounted on BMW cars. The sensor consists of two potentiometers located at an angle of 90 °.

The readings from these two potentiometers cover one complete turn, fig. eleven

Electronic car security systems 4

steering, all data from potentiometers are repeated after +/- 180 °. The SAS sensor understands this and accordingly calculates the steering speed. The full angle of the steering wheel position thus consists of the current potentiometer reading added to the number of full turns of the steering wheel in one direction or another. So that the exact position of the steering wheel is available at any time, there is a continuous monitoring of all movements of the steering wheel – even when the car is stationary. To achieve this, voltage is constantly applied to the angle sensor from terminal No. 30. This means that the steering wheel tracking continues even with the ignition switched off. The steering angle fixed by potentiometers remains available even after turning off the power; data on the number of steering wheel turns after a power failure is lost. In order for the steering angle sensor to understand the actual relative position of the steering wheel and the wheels of the car after the power supply is cut off, the control unit integrates software that can calculate this indicator based on the speed of the wheels of the car and the current reading of the steering angle. On some car models, it is enough to rotate the steering wheel 2-3 times to the right and left on a motionless vehicle. On others, adaptation of the SAS sensor is required. This procedure is possible both with the help of a diagnostic scanner and without it. If this procedure is not performed, the control unit cannot determine the exact relative position of the steering wheel and wheels. When the vehicle starts to move and reaches a speed of approximately 20 km / h, the corresponding DSC warning lamp will light up on the dashboard. The process of monitoring the state of the steering angle determination system starts immediately when the ignition is turned ON and if the steering speed is not known, the DSC system immediately switches to passive mode, and the corresponding DTC is written to the computer memory. On cars with a conventional single-axis drive, a situation is possible when, after the start of movement, the DSC control unit manages to calculate the correct steering angle at that moment the DSC warning lam on the dashboard will go out, and the system will begin to function normally. On all-wheel drive vehicles, the warning system works somewhat differently. DTC DTC is recorded immediately when power to the rudder position sensor (SAS) is interrupted. The system immediately switches to passive mode and when the ignition is turned on, the DSC warning lamp on the dashboard lights up, even on a stationary car.

But not only the power cut is the main cause of a malfunction in the system, additional checks of the proper state of the system are carried out periodically by the DSC control unit. The algorithm, as already mentioned above, is based on the readings of the ABS wheel speed sensors and the current values ​​of the steering wheel position sensor SAS. In the memory of the DSC system EEPROM control unit, standard values ​​are written that are compared with the current data from the sensors in real time. If the values ​​do not match, then the system naturally switches to passive mode with all the ensuing consequences. Everyone who is engaged in car repair must have met with a situation when the wheels of the car are level, and the steering wheel is shifted to one or the other side. This is a prime example of a mis-calibration of the SAS sensor. Such a situation can arise both during normal operation of the car and during repair and maintenance work with steering elements of the car, as well as during service procedures for adjusting the geometry of the wheels.

Zero Point Calibration without the diagnostic scanner on Toyota vehicles is calibrated to zero position using the following algorithm.

The car should be on a flat surface with a slope of less than 1 degree. To be motionless. On cars with an automatic transmission, the gear selector must be in the “P” position and the parking brake is activated, on cars with a manual transmission, activate the parking brake. During the procedure, do not change the position of the steering wheel or rock the car. The wheels of the vehicle must be in the forward position..

1. Turn the ignition ON, but do not start the engine.

2. Using a jumper, connect and disconnect the Ts and CG contacts more than 4 times in the DLC3 diagnostic connector for 8 seconds, Fig. 12

Electronic car security systems 5

3. Verify that the VSC indicator on the dashboard is flashing to indicate a previous calibration has been reset..

4. Turn off the ignition “OFF”.

5. Verify that the Ts and CG pins in the DLC3 diagnostic connector are disconnected..

6. Turn on the ignition ”ON”.

7. Verify that the VSC indicator on the dashboard lights up after turning the ignition on and goes out after about 15 seconds.

8. After 2 seconds after turning off the VSC indicator on the dashboard, turn off the ignition.

9. Use a jumper to connect the Ts and CG contacts to the DLC3 diagnostic connector.

10. Turn on the ignition ”ON”.

11. After turning on the ignition, make sure that the VSC indicator on the dashboard lights up for 4 seconds after turning on the ignition, and then starts to flash at intervals of 0.13 seconds.

12. Wait approximately 2 seconds while the VSC indicator on the dashboard flashes and turn off the ignition.

13. Remove the jumper from the DLC3 diagnostic connector.

14. Make a test drive by car for 5 minutes to ensure that the zero position calibration of the Steering angle sensor is successful. When you turn on the ignition and start the engine, the VSC indicator on the dashboard should light up briefly and turn off.

If during the test drive the VSC indicator on the dashboard lights up again, this means that the SAS zero calibration failed or the system has a malfunction. Try the calibration procedure again. If it also fails, check the system with a diagnostic scanner for DTCs.

Also, the category of basic sensors of electronic systems for additional safety of the car should include speed sensors WSS ABS systems installed on each wheel of the car. As the ABS system evolved, the type of sensors used changed, and if at the very beginning it was simple inductive sensors, which gradually replaced Hall sensors, which now in turn have to give way to new, more advanced MRE sensors. Our colleague Mikhail Evgenievich Kudryavtsev, the address of the article on the Internet autodata.ru/article/all/nissan_pathfinder_2007_mre_sensor/, described very well and in detail the principle of their action in his article “Nissan Pathfinder 2007 MRE sensor open circuit in the ABS harness”

I would also like to add that the waveform of the MRE sensors changes depending on the direction of the vehicle (forward / backward) and the signal is not taken from a conventional ring gear, but from a disk with magnetized fragments of different polarity.

What should significantly increase their reliability and accuracy of readings, Fig. thirteen

Electronic car security systems 6

The main sensors of electronic systems of additional safety of the car, fig. 14

Electronic car security systems 7

For service and repair, it is sometimes necessary to disable electronic safety systems. On many models, you can turn off by selecting the appropriate switch position on the dashboard located in the area, selecting the appropriate ON / OFF position. But not on all models such a switch is provided, and for example on the new Toyota camry there is a special procedure for turning the service mode on and off. In this mode, the TRC and VSC systems can be forcibly turned off either using a portable diagnostic tool or by simultaneously applying the parking brake and depressing the brake pedal. Information on changes in service mode can be found in the following maintenance recommendations..

Switch to service mode (TRC and VSC systems off).

TRC and VSC systems can be turned off in the order described below:

• Using the parking brake and brake pedal:

1. Make sure the ignition is off and the gear lever is set to ”P”.

2. Turn on the ignition (ON) and start the engine..

3. Perform steps 4 to 8 within 30 seconds after starting the engine.

4. Apply the parking brake..

5. Press the brake pedal twice and release it.

6. Turn the parking brake on and off twice by depressing the brake pedal.

7. Press and release the brake pedal twice while the parking brake is applied. Note: each of items 6 and 7 should be completed within 15 seconds..

8. Make sure that the slip warning lamp ”Slip” and the message ”CHECK VSC SYSTEM” are turned on on the multi-information display. Otherwise, repeat the procedure from step 1.

9. Electronic safety systems TRC and VSC can be returned to normal operation by turning the ignition off.

• When using a portable diagnostic tool:

1. Make sure the ignition is off and the gear lever is set to ”P”.

2. Turn on the ignition (ON) and start the engine..

3. Connect the portable diagnostic tool to the DLC3 connector and turn off the TRC and VSC systems from the corresponding service menu.

4. Electronic safety systems TRC and VSC can be returned to normal operation by turning the ignition off.

Diagnostics of electronic safety systems on the example of Toyota cars.

When an ECU detects electronic additional safety systems malfunctions in ABS systems with electronic brake force distribution (EBD), emergency brake assist, traction control (TRC) or directional stability control (VSC), the corresponding warning lamps and messages on the multi-information display indicate a faulty unit , fig. fifteen

Electronic car security systems 8

In the event of a malfunction in the ABS, EBD and emergency brake booster systems, the TRC and VSC systems are disabled. Accordingly, the main indicator lamp and the slip indicator lamp “Slip” are turned on, and the message “CHECK VSC SYSTEM” is displayed on the multi-information display.

At the same time, electronic trouble codes (DTCs) are recorded in the system memory. DTCs can be read by the number of flashes of the ABS warning lamp or by the output of codes on the multimedia information display by connecting a jumper to the Tc and CG terminals of the DLC3 connector or using a diagnostic tool.

This system provides an active diagnostic mode for sensor signals. The function is activated by connecting a jumper to the Tc and CG terminals of the DLC3 connector or using a scan tool. The ABS warning lamp and VSC warning lamp flash at intervals of 0.25 s. This monitoring function checks the deceleration sensor, yaw sensor, brake master cylinder pressure sensor and speed sensor.

An example of information output on a multi-information display, fig. 16

The system status code is displayed. The DTC is displayed.

In case of certain malfunctions, the operation of electronic additional safety systems goes into emergency mode. Here are some reasons for such a transition..

• In the event of a malfunction of the ABS system and / or the emergency brake booster, the ECU of the electronic additional safety systems blocks the inclusion of additional brake systems (ABS, emergency brake booster, TRC, VSC).

• In the event of a malfunction of the electronic brake force distribution (EBD) system, the ECU of the electronic safety systems blocks the operation of this system. Even in this case, the effective operation of the brake system is ensured, with the exception of additional brake systems (ABS with EBD, brake assist, TRC, VSC).

• In the event of a malfunction of the Traction Control System (TRC) and / or the Stability Program (VSC), the electronic control unit blocks the inclusion of these systems.

• In the event of a malfunction in the communication line between the ECU of the electronic safety systems and the steering angle sensor, the yaw and deceleration sensors or the engine ECU, the ECU of the electronic safety systems blocks the functioning of the traction control system (TRC) and the exchange rate stability (VSC) system.

• If the engine ECU registers certain DTCs (this list varies by model and year of manufacture), then it blocks the functioning of the traction control (TRC) and the electronic stability control (VSC).

Also, in certain cases, when critical DTCs are detected (from the point of view of the car manufacturer), not only the TRC and VSC electronic safety systems can be disabled, but also a forced power reduction occurs through direct control to the throttle motor directly from the engine ECU to limit the maximum engine speed. The so-called mode “LIMP MODE”.

The power limitation mode is also activated in extreme situations arising on the road and when the TRC and VSC systems are turned on. When you turn on the VSC system of directional stability, the ECU of the electronic safety systems sends a VSC enable signal to the engine ECU.

Upon receipt of this signal, the engine ECU adjusts the throttle position to change engine power, Fig. 17

Electronic car security systems 9

Well, in conclusion, very briefly about what the ABS system is with the electronic brake force distribution (EBD) system.

The ECU of the electronic safety systems calculates the speed of each wheel, the deceleration rate, and also recognizes the wheel lock based on signals from the wheel speed sensors, the vehicle’s rotation speed and the deceleration. Depending on whether the wheels slip or not, the ECU of electronic safety systems regulates the brake fluid pressure in the working cylinder of each wheel, including the check and pressure valves in one of three modes: decrease, hold and increase pressure.

The table shows a good example of an ABS system with electronic brake force distribution (EBD) in various operating modes. Fig. 18

Electronic car security systems 10

Of course, this is not complete information about the structure and functioning of the additional safety systems of the car ABS, TRC and VSC, but just a thesis overview of the main points. To learn more deeply and how to understand it is possible only through the daily practice of working with these systems in the repair and maintenance of cars.

Successful to all repairs and trouble-free maintenance of their cars.


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What is aquaplaning, why is it dangerous, and how to deal with it

What is aquaplaning, why is it dangerous, and how to deal with it

Aquaplaning is an effect that many have heard of, and some even felt, but which, nevertheless, often go unnoticed.

In this case, its potential danger is usually not only underestimated, but also exacerbated by non-compliance with the high-speed regime, untimely tire replacement, unsuitable actions in a dangerous situation … We find out what aquaplaning is, why it is dangerous, and how to avoid it.

What is aquaplaning?

Aquaplaning is the loss of tire adhesion to the surface of the roadway due to a layer of water on its surface. As the word implies, this is literally the effect of “planning on the surface of the water” – it is also called the “water wedge”. As a rule, it occurs when a car at too high a speed for current conditions enters a puddle or other accumulation of water. The main danger in this case is a complete loss of traction: here it is even lower than on ice, since there is no friction at all in the contact patch.

Excessive speed is one of the main reasons, but it can be different depending on specific conditions, therefore it cannot be said that some minimum (of the road) speed is a universal way to guarantee guaranteed avoidance of aquaplaning. However, in addition to speed, there are a number of other factors and reasons provoking this effect..

What factors increase the risk of aquapnulation?

As mentioned above, the first and main factor is excess speed. The tire of a conventional car has drainage grooves designed to divert a certain amount of water from the contact spot. When a car enters a puddle at high speed or simply on a very wet road, the tire may simply not be able to physically cope with the discharge of such an amount of water. As a result, a water film appears between the tire and the road in the contact patch, and traction disappears..

The thickness of the water film is the second logical factor. If the depth of the notorious puddle is great, then no tire can already divert all this water from the contact spot. That is, at a certain speed and thickness of the water film, the occurrence of aquaplaning is simply inevitable, and the only way to influence this is to reduce the speed in advance.

The residual tire tread depth is the third major factor affecting the potential risk of aquaplaning. The smaller the depth of the lamellas and grooves that divert water, the less this water they can divert. A worn-out tire, accordingly, is much less effective in the struggle for wet grip than a new one – this must be taken into account when choosing a speed. In addition, some active drivers, in pursuit of maximum grip on dry roads, install specialized sports tires on their cars – the so-called half-slicks or even slicks, but do not always take into account that a smaller number of drainage channels means less suitability for driving on wet surfaces. Therefore, you need to consciously approach both the choice of rubber, and its timely replacement.

A few more factors on which the possibility of manifestation of this dangerous effect depend – this is the tire pressure, the technical condition of the car’s suspension, its weight and the condition of the roadway. Everything is simple with the road: the smoother and better the road, and the less tubercles, irregularities and bulges on it, the more evenly the water is distributed over it – and the higher the risk of aquaplaning. In addition, asphalt tracks filled with rainwater pose a great danger: if you move “along the rolled path”, you can suddenly lose control.

The pressure in the tire also affects the minimum speed of aquaplaning: it is quite obvious that if the pressure in the tire is insufficient, then when it encounters a water barrier, the tire will not “cut” it effectively, but simply “rinse”, leaving water in the contact patch. Therefore, flat tires increase the risk of aquaplaning and reduce the initial rate of occurrence. A similar situation with the car’s suspension: faulty shock absorbers that do not have sufficient elasticity and stiffness further aggravate the car’s inability to “cling” to the roadway, which means they increase the potential danger. Well, with the mass of the car it’s still easier: a light car has more chances to “emerge” at a lower speed than a heavy one.

How to deal with aquaplaning?

The first and most obvious way to avoid this dangerous effect is to choose the right speed. The danger of aquaplaning is that its beginning cannot be predicted – unless you fly at speeds far beyond 100 into a huge puddle: everything is clear here. Otherwise, the choice of the optimal speed, taking into account the amount of water on the road, the uniformity of the roadway, the type and condition of tires, the mass of the car and all other factors is the main guarantee of safety.

In addition to speed, you need to remember the trajectory: the tires remove water as efficiently as possible in a uniform motion in a straight line, and can be slightly less effective in cornering. Therefore, turns should be slower than usual – not only is the wet road slippery, but also a sudden puddle on the arc can dramatically change the current alignment.

If you already feel that the car suddenly “swam”, then the main thing is not to turn the wheel and not hit the brakes. The water film under the wheel is not an icy road and snow is not rolled, and the usual methods of dealing with skidding will not work here. If you turn the steering wheel at the time of “ascent”, then as soon as the tire touches the road again, it will provoke a sharp jerk to the side – and the subsequent skid. Exactly the same applies to the pedal-locked wheels.

Based on the above conditions, the best scenario for aquaplaning is engine braking without changing the position of the steering wheel. If the car “floated”, you need to release the gas and not make sudden movements, waiting for the natural forces to return your grip and control over the car.

Another caveat: often aquaplaning does not occur on all wheels at once, but only on one or two: for example, if the car enters the puddle on one side. In this case, it is doubly important to hold the steering wheel firmly and keep calm: after all, a sharply increased rolling resistance on the side that is in the puddle can turn the car around and even pull the steering wheel out of the hands, and sharp braking in this case can turn it in the other direction – the one where there will be no water, but there will be better grip. Therefore, the general scenario is the same: do not drive into wet areas at too high a speed and do not try to steer or brake sharply when one of the sides of the car is “on the water”.


Fiat ducato how to post ads 19

Fiat ducato how to post ads

Fiat ducato, sale and purchase of automobiles

Fiat ducato how to post ads 20

Fiat Ducato is the newest personification of the van, which is now selling very well, in the ranks of a brand from Italy, six generations of which have earned a number of international prizes and scattered across all countries in a huge number of more than 3 million copies. This van is practical and was created at the request of the business, that is, convenient and comfortable and the secret of its sales is the ability to change, listen to the specific requirements of its consumer.

In the template configuration, Ducato has earned a system that is used so that the ABS brakes do not block, electronic brake separations. The list contains: a driver’s airbag, steering wheel control and the height of the seat on which the driver sits, brakes of all wheels on the wheels, a power steering wheel with a hydro, power.

Today, in order to post advertisements to a sales website, you will need either the Internet or newspapers that provide free private ads. Numerous public projects are introduced into practice, the purpose of which is to promote information. Such an activity is able to provide car owners with the data that they need in the process of driving. This also applies to those subtleties that are practically not voiced.

There is a wide variety of sites on which everything is readily written: descriptions, specifications and photos. The essence of these ads is that users can appreciate all the pros and cons of any product. The only thing they can’t do yet is touch it, but progress is implacable.

In general, go to the site, register. You will receive a confirmation code. You enter it in a certain window and begin to enter data on the car. Everything is very simple and affordable..


Enhanced Kia Rio 2015 26

Enhanced Kia Rio 2015

Enhanced Kia Rio 2015

Enhanced Kia Rio 2015 27

Finally, the modified Kia Rio was released. According to statistical surveys, this is the best car in its class with a huge number of options at an affordable price. The new 2018-2019 Kia Rio restyling Premium equipment has surpassed the restyling, and the most pleasant change is the appearance of a six-speed transmission.

It’s as if the car was created for the Russian climate and roads, in the winter period such options as heating mirrors, electric heating of the windshield, electric heating of the washer nozzles will be very useful. When you get into the car in winter, you will not feel any discomfort, especially the driver and front passenger, because their seats are heated, and the steering wheel is heated to this. Passengers in the back row will also not be deprived of coziness and comfort. The car warms up quickly, and there is enough space in the back seat for three people.

The car has all the most necessary and useful functions for the driver and passenger. The presence of a USB port, AUX output, 12V socket and a separate cigarette lighter. There are buttons on the steering wheel that remotely help control the radio, capable of reading all modern formats, as well as playing music from flash cards.

By adjusting the steering wheel according to the departure, you can easily adjust its height for yourself .. Plastic in the passenger compartment looks quite expensive, sitting in the passenger compartment does not feel like a “B” class car.

Externally, the car also changed and this can not be overlooked, it changed: headlights, lenses in the headlights, linear LEDs in the front bumper, the shape of the front fog lamps changed, instead of the usual lamps, LEDs appeared in the rear lights, chrome door trim, new alloy wheels.

Driving performance of the car is amazing. Acceleration to 100 km / h in just 11.2 seconds, it is also worth noting the actual fuel consumption on the highway, it is 6.2 liters per 100 km, in the city a little more than about 8.0 liters per 100 km. The clearance is high 160 mm, with such clearance you can without hesitation drive out of town on dirt roads, the car is suitable not only for a city resident, but also for a resident of the countryside. Due to the large volume of the luggage compartment, it’s 500 liters in a sedan, and for hatchback 389 liters you can easily carry large bags, and if you apply the properties of the rear seats, which can be folded down and the volume for transportation will increase significantly. Thanks to its suspension, the car behaves confidently on the highway, enters the turns smoothly.

The car is suitable for all both girls and young people, ambitious bachelors and exemplary family people, students and retirees.


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I look at Largus, but I see Logan 33

I look at Largus, but I see Logan

I look at Largus, but I see Logan

I look at Largus, but I see Logan 34

Opening the driver’s door, you will hear how quietly the central lock works, which cannot but rejoice. Sitting on the driver’s seat, you can see how much Largus and Renault Logan have in common, for example, the chair does not have rigid lateral support and does not allow you to feel comfortable, especially if you have been on the road for a very long time. Fortunately, you can regulate your landing, for example, by controlling the availability of pedals, but to control so that the steering wheel is not too close to the body. By the way, in Lada Largus the “levers” of adjustment were moved to the space between the front seats and now it is much more convenient to use them. Unfortunately, the power button for front seat heating is still not convenient, as it is located between the door and the seat cushion, where it is used blindly. This moment somewhat discharges the automatic mode of operation of this heating. It is not perfect, but still simplifies the actions of the driver, although in some cases it overheats a certain place in your body.

Moving to the front panel, you can see that it is practically copied from Logan, only the overlays on the center console and the dashboard are at least somewhat different from the mentioned car. But the material (plastic) of which the panel is made is much nicer than in Logan. If you feel the surface of the panel, then it has a certain course and it seems that the panel is “rubberized”. For example, ventilation deflectors did surprise with their build quality, since they do not have any hints of backlash. If you look at the Lada badge on the steering wheel, it’s Zhiguli, but the smell of the cabin and its quality are far from Zhiguli and even Logan.

But the dashboard Largus in picking “Norma” afflicted with its simplicity. There is no on-board computer that can give the driver so much useful information. But there is a positive point – the dark dial, which looks somewhat prettier than the white version in Logans. Otherwise, everything is as usual, except that the corner dividers are not divided into right and left.

If you look closely, it is noticeable that the panel was taken from Logan, only the shape of the upper plates and the performance of the center console is different.

It’s not quite customary to see the VAZ badge on the steering wheel from Logan. The steering wheel itself is pleasant and comfortable, it’s even nice to twist it without a leather cover.

Even despite a certain similarity with the interior from Logan, other materials were used in Largus, which are slightly better and more pleasant to the touch, and the design itself is more interesting.

As usual, for French cars, the signal button is located on the left steering column. However, we are used to the fact that Lada is not a French car and we also press on the center of the steering wheel.

The seat heating button is located on the side of the driver’s seat and when the door is closed, it is very difficult to use. The automatic mode of operation of this heating helps to solve this problem..

The standard radio does not have its own label, but it has a USB port and allows you to connect the phone via Bluetooth, which will allow you to communicate on the phone, without interruption from controlling the machine.

The car has an airbag for the front passenger and it can be turned off (so that you can install a child seat).

The glove compartment in Largus is not the largest, but even in it you can put a sheet of A4 format, and also there is a place for long storage of the service book and car instructions