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Toyota 1CD-FTV engine – overview (common rail)

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 1
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2.1. Fuel system
Toyota first used the Common Rail scheme on a 1CD-FTV engine. Unlike a conventional diesel system with a distribution type injection pump, here the fuel is pumped into the common fuel rail by injection pump and injected into the cylinders through electronically controlled nozzles, reminiscent of the nozzles of a gasoline engine. One of the main differences is the significantly increased fuel pressure (instead of

200 atmospheres in a conventional engine – 1350 here).

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 2
1 – electronic engine control unit, 2 – injector amplifier, 3 – fuel pressure sensor, 4 – fuel rail,
5 – pressure limiter, 6 – check valve, 7 – nozzle, 8 – fuel pump, 9 – fuel tank, 10 – sensors.

2.2. Fuel pump
ТНВД in the scheme Common Rail has nothing in common with traditional Bosch VE.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 3
1 – fuel temperature sensor, 2 – SCV (electronic bypass valve), 3 – pressure regulator,
4 – plunger B, 5 – drive disk, 6 – plunger A,
7 – pusher, 8 – booster pump.

The booster pump, control valves and the two-chamber high-pressure pump itself, the guide disc of which is an ellipse, are placed in the housing.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 4
2 – SCV (electronic bypass valve), 3 – pressure regulator, 4 – plunger B, 5 – actuator disk, 6 – plunger A, 7 – pusher, 8 – booster pump, 9 – pressure valve, 10 – check valve.

During suction, the plungers, following the profile of the guide disc, diverge, SCV opens and fuel enters the pressure chamber.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 5
1 – pressure chamber, 2 – plunger,
3 – a directing disk, 4 – fuel, 5 – SCV,
6 – pusher, 7 – plunger.

After the disc is rotated 90 degrees, the SCV shuts off the input channel and begins the discharge stroke.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 6

The amount of fuel supplied to the plunger is regulated by SCV, so that the control unit manages to maintain the required pressure in the fuel rail.

2.3. Fuel rail
A fuel pressure sensor and a mechanical pressure limiter are installed in the fuel rail. It should be noted that the pressure sensor is structurally made “disposable” and should not be screwed in again, and the pressure limiter is adjusted once at the factory.

2.4. Nozzles

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 7

The design of the 1CD-FTV nozzle is not as sophisticated as on a fresh Isuzu diesel engine (4JX1), but nonetheless is very different from ordinary diesel and ordinary gasoline. Of course, with such a monstrous pressure in the ramp, a simple solenoid valve would be weak, so the nozzle control is “electro-hydraulic”.

In the closed state, the valve is held by a spring, while the fuel in the control chamber holds the piston in the lower position, which, in turn, fixes the needle through the spring (the fuel pressure acting on the needle from below is not enough to open it).

When current is applied to the winding, the valve retracts and opens a channel through which fuel passes to the bottom of the piston. As a result, the pressure in the control chamber decreases and the pressure increases under the piston, as a result of which it rises. At the same time, the nozzle lock needle opens and fuel is injected..

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 8
1 – electromagnetic valve, 2 – winding, 3 – control chamber, 4 – needle, 5 – piston, 6 – fuel.

As you can see, the nozzle is a complex mechanism built on a delicate balance of spring forces and fuel pressure and its throttling in thin channels. The quality of our diesel fuel is known, so you can not count on the long maintenance of this balance.

2.5. Control system

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 9

The scheme of the engine control system. 1 – accelerator pedal position sensor, 2 – from the ignition switch, 3 – starter signal, 4 – air conditioning signal, 5 – from the speed sensor,
6 – from a generator, 7 – from a DLC3 connector, 8 – an electronic engine control unit, 9 – a fuel tank, 10 – a fuel temperature sensor, 11 – a fuel filter, 12 – a high pressure fuel pump,
13 – SCV valve, 14 – fuel pressure sensor, 15 – fuel rail, 16 – intercooler (intercooler), 17 – nozzle control unit relay, 18 – nozzle control unit (nozzle amplifier), 19 – air flow meter, 20 – atmospheric sensor temperature, 21 – EGR valve, 22 – nozzle, 23 – EGR cooler, 24 – turbocharger control pneumatic actuator, 25 – camshaft position sensor, 26 – vacuum control valve (turbocharger pneumatic actuator), 27 – vacuum pump,
28 – coolant temperature sensor, 29 – crankshaft position sensor, 30 – throttle,
31 – intake air temperature sensor, 32 – boost pressure sensor, 33 – boost valve electro-pneumatic valve, 34 – glow plug, 35 – glow plug relay.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 10

The location of the components. 1 – fuel pressure sensor, 2 – electro-pneumatic valve (boost pressure sensor), 3 – glow plug, 4 – nozzle amplifier, 5 – camshaft position sensor, 6 – electronic engine control unit, 7 – nozzle, 8 – air flow meter, 9 – boost pressure sensor, 10 – DLC3 connector, 11 – accelerator pedal position sensor, 12 – EGR valve, 13 – intake air temperature sensor, 14 – throttle valve, 15 – coolant temperature sensor, 16 – vacuum control valve, 17 – sensor crankshaft position.

The control system has become almost completely electronic. The accelerator pedal is no longer mechanically connected to the injection pump (its position is controlled by a sensor), crankshaft and camshaft position sensors, respectively, appeared on the crankshaft and camshaft pulleys (the first is also a TDC sensor).

Fuel injection into the cylinders is carried out in two stages – first a small charge, then the main one, which ensures a more uniform increase in pressure in the cylinder, reduces vibration and noise.

The exhaust gas recirculation system and the throttle are not controlled by pneumatic drives, but by electric motors.

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 11

1 – throttle, 2 – throttle actuator, 3 – EGR valve, 4 – EGR cooler, 5 – exhaust manifold, 6 – intake manifold, 7 – electronic engine control unit.

The use of a “variable geometry” turbocharger made it possible to control the boost pressure depending on the engine operating conditions (speed, injected fuel volume, atmospheric pressure, coolant temperature).

The boost pressure sensor is also capable of measuring barometric pressure – an electro-pneumatic valve is used for this, switching the air intake to the atmosphere at those moments when fuel injection does not occur (at idle or when slowing down).

Toyota 1CD-FTV engine - overview (common rail) 12

1 – electronic engine control unit, 2 – pneumatic drive of the turbocharger, 3 – boost pressure sensor, 4 – electro-pneumatic valve, 5 – vacuum pump, 6 – vacuum control valve.

There are also new diagnostic codes not previously seen on Toyota diesels:
34 (2) – Turbocharging system
34 (3) – Drive turbocharger blades (jamming in the closed state)
34 (4) – Drive turbocharger blades (jamming in the open state)
51 – Brake light switch circuit
71 – EGR control circuit
89 – Body control unit

2.6. Generator
In 2000-2002, Toyota began the transition to a new type of generator.
The new stator is made according to the “segmented conductor” scheme, where instead of a single continuous winding, segments joined together are inserted into the stator body. As a result, the resistance decreased and the stator size decreased.

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