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Toyota 1CD-FTV Engine – Overview (Mechanical)

Toyota 1CD-FTV Engine - Overview (Mechanical) 1

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The 1CD-FTV engine was Toyota’s first common rail diesel engine. It should replace the previous “medium-caliber” diesel engines previously presented by the C series. Its scope is so far limited to the European models Corolla (CDE110 and CDE120), Avensis (CDT220 and CDT250), Avensis Verso / Picnic (CLM20), Previa (CLR30) , RAV4 (CLA20) – in the domestic market, the Japanese practically abandoned diesel engines in cars.

Working volume, cm 3 1975 2184 1995 Power hp. 88/4000 94/4000 110-116 / 4000 Torque, Nm 177/2200 206/2200 250 / 1800-3000 Compression ratio 23.0 22.6 18.6 Cylinder diameter mm 86 86 82,2 Piston stroke mm 85 94 94

Toyota 1CD-FTV Engine - Overview (Mechanical) 2

It is easy to notice that the new engine added very noticeably in the characteristics, closely approaching gasoline engines of the same volume in power and significantly exceeding them in torque. However, it should be noted right away that in terms of dynamic performance, a car with such a motor is still significantly inferior to them.

The 1CD motor has truly become a completely new design, inheriting from the “C” series only some of the layout features. Now consider its main systems.

1.1. Cylinder head
The block head, traditionally made of aluminum alloy, has several radical differences from the cylinder head of conventional diesel engines.
Firstly, it’s clear from the name of the engine that there are not two, but four valves per cylinder, and two camshafts. Due to this, the area of ​​the exhaust and exhaust channels increased, the filling of the cylinders improved.
Secondly, “D-4D” means “a four-stroke diesel engine with a Common Rail system and direct injection of fuel into the cylinder” (otherwise with unshared combustion chambers). If earlier the nozzle and glow plug “exited” into the vortex chamber (in the cylinder head), now the nozzle supplies fuel directly to the cylinder.
Well, if Toyotov’s turbo diesel engines were not distinguished by the durability of their heads, then as new ones with thinner valve jumpers will show themselves, time will tell.

Toyota 1CD-FTV Engine - Overview (Mechanical) 3
Toyota 1CD-FTV Engine - Overview (Mechanical) 4

1.2. The cylinder block
The cylinder block is still cast from cast iron and has no liners; small changes affected only the thickness of the walls and stiffeners.

1.3. Piston
The piston has significantly decreased in diameter compared to the “C” series (the engine has now become “long-stroke”), and the combustion chamber has also moved into it. Other innovations are a niresist insert under the upper compression ring, a cooling channel and an anti-friction coating applied to the piston skirt.

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1.4. Crankshaft
The crankshaft is made, as usual, full support, with hardened high-frequency current necks.

1.5. Timing Drive
The mechanism with two camshafts and four valves per cylinder is driven by a belt that rotates the exhaust valve shaft, and then through the gears the intake camshaft is driven.

A vacuum pump is also provided from the exhaust camshaft (it must be assumed that its new version will not be as unreliable as on the C-series diesels).

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The clearance is still adjusted using washers located above the plunger (there is no need to remove the shafts for adjustment).

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The timing belt has now received an automatic hydraulic tensioner (which is not too good for durability), and it is recommended to replace it every 150 thousand kilometers (but this is not bad).

Toyota 1CD-FTV Engine - Overview (Mechanical) 8

Note. When replacing the belt, the marks on the pulleys should be located as follows:

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1.6. Lubrication system

The oil system has not undergone any special changes compared to conventional engines. It has a liquid oil cooler, piston cooling nozzles and an oil level sensor. Refueling capacity – 5.9 liters when replacing with a filter or 6.7 liters on a dry engine.

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1.7. Cooling system
One can only hope that the weakest point of the “C” series was nevertheless improved with the advent of a new engine. A noticeable difference is that overpressure is now maintained in the expansion tank so that the coolant does not come in contact with air, which means it does not evaporate and does not age so quickly.

1.8. Inlet and outlet
A spider is now installed at the inlet with air ducts of equal length and a resonator, the throttle valve received an electric drive, an air-air intercooler (intercooler) appeared.

To reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), an EGR system is used that, by passing a certain amount of exhaust gas to the inlet, reduces the maximum temperature in the cylinder.

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The amount of bypassed gases is regulated by an EGR valve with a stepper motor instead of a vacuum drive and liquid cooling (which allows to reduce the exhaust gas temperature and increase their bypass).

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1.9. Turbocharger
1CD-FTV engine turbocharger differs significantly from traditional.

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There is no usual gas bypass mechanism here, but a system of changing the geometry has appeared. No, the Toyota team has not yet reached the change in the angle of installation of the blades on the turbine, but the guide vanes have already appeared – through them the exhaust gases pass to the turbine. Since the turbine rotation speed depends on the gas flow rate, then at idle, when the amount of exhaust gases is small, the blades are “closed” by means of a pneumatic drive, forming a relatively small gap through which the gases pass to the exhaust.

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With a small load, the pneumatic actuator moves the control ring, while the blades pivotally connected to it rotate, which partially close. As a result, the most suitable gas flow rate through the turbine is maintained..

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At high load, the blades move to the open position, thereby maintaining the required boost pressure.

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1.10. Modifications
Several versions of the 1CD-FTV engine differ. Here we consider the option used on the RAV4 CLA20.
The Avensis 1CD-FTV variant features a conventional turbine, a vacuum-driven EGR valve, a standard generator, a conventional belt tensioner and slightly lower power.

The 1CD-FTV option on the Previa 30 is mainly distinguished by the presence of a gear balancer.

Eugene, Moscow
© Legion Avtodata


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