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Vibrodiagnostics – theoretically substantiated and tested in practice

Vibrodiagnostics - theoretically substantiated and tested in practice 1
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Vibrodiagnostics - theoretically substantiated and tested in practice

Without keyword

Take two cars. One, fresh and brilliant, was brought just yesterday from Japan, and the second, loud with its details, has been running along the roads of Russia for many years. The question is, which of these cars will break before? It turns out that it’s easy to find out if you use the developments of the employees of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. They created a technique and a device that can reliably assess the reliability of any mechanism, including a car engine.

If today the engine of your car works perfectly, then who can guarantee that it will be so in a week. Yes, everything can be repaired, but why bring the matter to the necessary repair, especially since in modern times this can be expensive. You will say that you do not need to know the day of “death”, even if the car. Then take another case: you are buying a used car. No one knows how much it goes through, and there are more than enough cases when a freshly purchased car suddenly, for no apparent reason, suddenly got into serious repairs. Although in reality, of course, there were reasons, and today they can already be “calculated” using a new device. And the third case. You change, for example, engine oil in the engine of your four-wheeled “friend” or add any additives to the engine. Is it necessary to do this at the moment? Maybe this oil should have been changed a month ago? How did the additives work? And a device that has no analogues in the world will answer these questions..

Any mechanism, including the engine, leaves the factory floor with a mass of small internal defects. This misalignment, imbalances, surface roughness and much more. To one degree or another, these defects have always been, are and will be satellites of any production. Most often they cancel each other out and are smoothed out with grease. In this mode, all the mechanisms in the world work. But for various reasons, some defects begin to progress. The development of the defect occurs gradually and does not appear in any way. When non-greased door hinges creak in your house, you hear it and draw the appropriate conclusions. All contacting surfaces creak in any working mechanism. But this creak, or rather – high-frequency vibration, you do not hear, because it is very quiet and, moreover, is in the high-frequency region, inaccessible to the human ear. But the device “hears” it and displays the corresponding values ​​on the screen. He will not determine the surfaces of which particular parts make this sound – inserts, pushers or some other ones, but the presence of increased vibration, i.e. defect, the device will determine reliably.

What do we do when door hinges creak? Lubricate them. How long will this grease last? That’s right, it depends on the state of the rubbing surfaces. The same thing happens in any mechanism, including in an automobile engine. You change his engine oil, just not knowing if he needs it at the moment. And will it help? As an example, consider a worn generator ball bearing. It can be washed and filled with new grease. But, if he has already destroyed raceways, will he be able to work with this new lubricant? If the mating surfaces have serious defects, even the most expensive oil will not remove them, they will only develop, with the exception of maybe the smallest ones, which can “tighten” the long molecules of fresh oil. In addition, there is certainly a chance to mask (and fairly reliably) these minor defects, for example, fluoroplastic additives, metal reducing agents, etc. Thus, in the early stages of the formation of a defect in the mating surfaces, the engine can still be “cured”. But at what stage the defect is currently located, how the process of “treatment” is going on – the device will also help to determine and determine this on the basis of high-frequency vibration. You probably had to witness something like this dialogue: “I poured a polymer additive into my engine, but nothing changed,” and in response: “But it helped me: both the power increased and the fuel consumption decreased.” Who to believe? Yes, both are right, just rubbing surfaces in the engines of their cars were at different stages of development of the defect.

The very first and most common objection: “The engines are all so different!” Yes, but for high-frequency diagnostics they are all the same! Steel, it will always be steel, regardless of whether it is used in a helicopter or in a submarine. And the liner, before welding, for some time will issue a high-frequency squeak of 130 dB in any car engine. Vibrodiagnostics, of course, will not determine what kind of problem exists in the engine, liners or something else become unusable, but it will definitely determine the presence and magnitude of the problem.

During the diagnosis according to the developed methodology, three indicators are determined:

· “Level of technical condition” (TCB);

· “Lubricity of oil” (CCM);

· “Possibility of destruction” (BP).

TCB is determined by defects such as skew, misalignment, imbalance, etc. These defects are mainly inherent in the manufacture of the engine and tend to increase, depending on operating conditions. They, of course, reduce the reliability of the engine, but do not lead to immediate destruction. It is well known that an engine can knock and run for more than one year. Throughout the world, modifications of this particular indicator have long and successfully been used for vibration diagnostics. But TCB does not determine the residual resource of the mechanism, being only one of the reasons leading to the destruction of this mechanism.

CCM is an indicator determined by the state of rubbing surfaces, which in turn depends on the quality of the oil, the state of the surface and the presence of dirt (impregnation of carbon into the surface). Even if the reason for the increase in CCM is unknown, the oil is easy to replace. Both the head of the block and the crankshaft are lubricated with one oil, and if the CCM is high in either case, then the first thing to do is to “sin” on the oil. If the indicators are different, then the oil has nothing to do with it.

BP – the main indicator characterizing the reliability of the mechanism. It is determined by the combination of two interrelated indicators – TCB and SMS.

All diagnosed indicators are determined by the device on a logarithmic scale, i.e. in decibels (dB). A change in the indicator, for example, from 40 to 60 dB corresponds to an increase in vibration activity by 10 times.

The diagnostic process takes about 5 minutes. A special probe for several seconds alternately touch the cylinder block, head, turbine, generator, etc. During these seconds, a device the size of a book makes several hundred measurements in different frequency ranges, averages their values ​​and displays.

It is theoretically substantiated and verified in practice that if the values ​​of the CCM and BP are lower than 45 dB, the engine does not need any measures. When the values ​​of these indicators are in the range from 40 to 60 dB, prophylaxis is needed, i.e. oil change, flushing, possibly adjustment. If the BP value is from 60 to 80 dB, then in addition to prophylaxis, treatment may also be necessary – multiple engine flushing, the use of various additives that restore the surface, reduce friction, etc. at higher rates, repairs are already required. But you can see these defects with your own eyes only when the BP index is above 90 dB.

When we began to carry out such vibration diagnostics in our car workshop, the author of this method said: “Well, you’re carrying“ firewood ”from Japan!” – although he diagnosed completely new (by our standards) sparkling cars of the 90s. And to the question: “Is it really domestic better?” – said: “Yes, although the TCB index is usually worse for them, but for many cars whose engines are regularly serviced, the CCM indicator is very low, and this results in a rather low BP value. These cars, of course, are more reliable than just off the assembly line. This also explains the fact that very noisy engines, for example, Muscovites, with appropriate maintenance, can be operated for a very long time, and Toyota with their silent engines get into repair for no apparent reason. ”.

The best performance for the engines of Japanese cars that we had in the diagnostics was less than 30 dB. But these were almost new and very beloved by the owners four-wheeled “beauties”.

After such a vibrodiagnostics, our brigade of motorists, believing in the new technique, intensively “cured” for a month reduced the BP in their cars from 50-60 dB to 30-40 dB.

Thus, the reliability of any vehicle components depends on the timely replacement of the lubricant – a commonplace truth known to every car owner. But it must be remembered that the lubricant resource assigned by the engine manufacturer is equivalent to the “average temperature in the hospital” and, in principle, cannot correspond to the actual resource.

The optimal solution to this problem is a stationary monitoring system for the units and blocks of the car responsible for its “survivability”. But this is a matter of the future, but for now, a unique device is preparing for serial production.

Based on the vibration diagnostics data, the car owner receives:

· Recommendations for the implementation of necessary measures aimed at increasing the “survivability”;

· Information on the actual condition of the diagnosed nodes, blocks, the entire mechanism;

· Analysis of the effectiveness of previous preventive or repair work.

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